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Protecting Knowledge Conference Links

Traditional Resource Rights

What are Traditional Resource Rights?

You can also view Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights or take a look (in PDF format) at the Table%20of%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Contents,%20Chapter%201%20"Whose%20Knowledge,%20Whose%20Genes,%20Whose%20Rights?" written by Stephen Brush (who is the co-editor of the book with Doreen Stabinsky).  You can review the list of Contributors.

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The Convention of Biological Diversity

Download the text of The Convention of Biological Diversity in English (HTML or PDF), Espagnol (HTML or PDF)%20or Francais (HTML or PDF).

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What is Biological Diversity?

The term "biological diversity" is commonly used to describe the number and variety of living organisms on the planet. It is defined in terms of genes, species, and ecosystems which are the outcome of over 3,000 million years of evolution. The human species depends on biological diversity for its own survival. Thus, the term can be considered a synonym for "life on Earth".

To date, an estimated 1.7 million species have been identified. The exact number of the Earth' a P

What is Article 8(j)?

Article 8(j) of The Convention of Biological Diversity acknowledges the importance of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), traditional lifestyles and sustainability, the promotion of the idea of consent in the use of TEK and the idea of benefit sharing and customary use. This is a closer look of what Article 8(j) means at the community level.


First Meeting of the Ad-Hoc Open-Ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) And Related Provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Venue : Hotel Melía Sevilla
Date: 27 to 31 March 2000

You can download the background document "Synthesis of case_studies and relevant information on Article 8(j) and related provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity " (UNEP/CBD/WG8J/1/Inf2) for the Ad Hoc working group on Article 8j meeting in Sevilla is available online. You will also find the following articles available in the official six languages of the United Nations (English, Spanish, French, Chinese, Arabic and Russian) at http://www.biodiv.org/indig/Wg8j1/index.html

What does international efforts like The Convention of Biological Diversity and the Rio Declaration mean at the community level?

See the International Alliance of the Indigenous Peoples of the Tropical Rainforest  and The Biodiversity Convention -The Concerns of Indigenous Peoples.

See also the Center for World Indigenous Studies (CWIS) paper The Convention on Biological Diversity and Its Impact on Indigenous People (Word).

View the results of the United Nations' conference titled Traditional Knowledge and Biological Diversity (UNEP/CBD/TKBD/1/2 -- 18 October, 1997).  Download the text in English (HTML or PDF),%20Espagnol%20(PDF)%20or%20Francais%20(The%20resulting%20report%20was%20titled%20Report%20of%20the%20Workshop%20on%20Traditional%20Knowledge%20and%20Biological%20Diversity%20(UNEP/CBD/TKBD/1/3%20--%20December%2015,%201997).%20Available%20in%20English%20(HTML,%20PDF),%20French%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20(PDF%20or%20Word)%20and%20Spanish%20(français. / Disponible en español.

Themes

Ecotourism
Does ecotourism benefit local communities? Does it benefit the environment? Or does it perpetuate patterns of power and dominance that are destructive of the environment and of the people?

There are two sites which describe the activities of RICANCIE, Sustainable Development in the Ecuadorian Amazon: Community-Based Ecotourism written by Samuel Adams and Indigenous Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: The Case of Río Blanco, Ecuador is an online paper written by David Schaller.

Art
The cultural designs and motifs of our communities communicate our ideas and beliefs. Can such images be "owned" by a community or by an artist? What are the consequences when they are expropriated and mass-produced? Can the current legal tools of copyrights, patents and trademarks protect the cultural integrity of such images?

Michael Blakeney wrote the article, Milpurrurru & Ors v Indofurn & Ors: Protecting Expressions of Aboriginal Folklore Under Copyright Law. You can view the article in TEXT only.

Forest Resources

What are Forest Resources? How can Forest Resources be protected? Does such protection afford "sustainable management"?

The Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor is a publication that promotes the exchange of information on Indigenous Knowledge as it relates to sustainable development.  The following are some of the articles available online relating to this session.

Indigenous knowledge of miombo trees in Morogoro, Tanzania
by E. Munyanziza and K. F. Wiersum

Formal and informal knowledge networks in conservation forestry in Zimbabwe
by B.T. Hanyani-Mlambo and Paul Hebinck

Roy Ellen wrote the article Indigenous Knowledge of the Rainforest: Perception, Extraction and Conservation.  Also he wrote the article Forest Knowledge, Forest Transformation: Political Contingency, Historical Ecology and the Renegotiation of Nature In Central Seram.

In June, 1997 the First Nations House of Learning, National Aboriginal Forestry Association and the University of British Columbia hosted the workshop Indigenous Perspectives In Forestry Education

Earthjustice Legal Defense Fund, formerly the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, is the law firm for the environment.  In response to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Seattle meeting, Earthjustice released the report Our Forests at Risk: The World Trade Organization's Threat to Forest Protection.

Oral History

Songs, dances, names and stories tell us who we are. What happens when oral history is shared? What happens when there is a breach of confidentiality? Should there be more community control of research projects? What are the ways to protect oral history?

Intellectual Property Law and the Protection of Indigenous Folklore and Knowledge (Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, Vol 5, No 2. June, 1998) is an article from the online journal E Law written by Joseph Githaiga.  

You can view the full document in HTML or in TEXT.

International Human Rights

A brief look at international human rights and the effectiveness of international efforts like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Convenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

International Legal Review

A review of the importance and relevance to communities of legally binding international agreements like the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; The World Heritage Convention; and the Rome Convention.

You can view Dr. Darrell Posey's article National Laws and International Agreements affecting Indigenous and Local Knowledge: Conflict or Conciliation?

TRIPS

An examination of the Gatt Agreement (1994) on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs). What is happening with the TRIPs review?  Why is this important at the community level?

What is the World Trade Organization?  What is the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)? 

Read the Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN) article TRIPS versus CBD.

Do Pharmaceutical Agreements work?

There are several companies who have embarked on extensive bioprospecting expedition programs. Some have signed Pharmaceutical Agreements with Indigenous communities. Some of these agreements are made under the auspices of the The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program which is a U.S. Government funded effort to promote equitable sharing of biodiversity benefits in the context of integrated research and development toward drug discovery, biodiversity, conservation and economic development. Do these type of agreements work?

Shaman Pharmaceuticals founded The Healing Forest Conservancy in 1990 as an independent, non-profit public benefit corporation dedicated to promoting the long-term survival of the biological diversity of tropical forests, particularly medicinal plants, and the cultural diversity of tropical forest peoples, particularly their traditional knowledge of medicinal plant usage.  You can also read the following article:

Shaman Pharmaceuticals: Integrating Indigenous Knowledge, Tropical Medicinal Plants, Medicine, Modern Science and Reciprocity into a Novel Drug Discovery Approach, written by Donald E. Bierer, Thomas J. Carlson, and Steven R. King.

Ethnobotany, IPR and benefit-sharing: the Forest People's Fund in Suriname by Edward C. Green, Kenneth J. Goodman, and Martha Hare begins with the following paragraph:

The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program is an U.S. Government funded effort to promote equitable sharing of biodiversity benefits in the context of integrated research and development toward drug discovery, biodiversity conservation and economic development.  A variety of reports are available here.  You can download the following reports:

The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program (Bioprospecting in Practice:  A Case Study of the Suriname ICBG Project and Benefits Sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity (PDF%20only).

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The%20International%20Cooperative%20Biodiversity%20Group:%20Drug%20Development%20and%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20in%20Africa:%20Case%20Study%20of%20A%20Benefit-Sharing%20Plan%20)PDF%20only).

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Online%20Papers

The%20following%20are%20online%20papers%20forwarded%20by%20such%20organizations%20like%20the%20Rural Advancement Foundation International.  Please visit their sites for up-to-date links and material.

Dwijen Rangnekar, "TRIPS and Biodiversity", Briefing paper #4, Centre for International Trade, Economics and the Environment, Consumer Unity & Trust Society, Jaipur, India, December 1999. 
To order, please email cutsjpr@jp1.dot.net.in 

Graham Dutfield, "Biopiracy: the slavery of the new millennium? surely not", Working Group on Traditional Resource Rights, Oxford, UK, 13 December 1999. 
Available online at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~wgtrr/slavery.htm 

Graham Dutfield, "Intellectual Property Rights, Trade and Biodiversity: seeds and plant varieties", Earthscan Books and IUCN, London, 2000. (ISBN:1-85383-692-3) 
To order, please visit http://www.earthscan.co.uk or email earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk 

RAFI, Berne Declaration and Gene Campaign, "Update on Basmati Rice Patent", Geno-types, Rural Advancement Foundation International, Winnipeg, Canada, 4 January 2000. 
Available online at http://www.rafi.org or email rafi@rafi.org 

"Defining the World's Public Property", special series of articles in Le Monde Diplomatique, Paris, France, January 2000. 
Available online in English at http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/en/2000/01/ 

Donna O Perdue, "The Changing Landscape for Patenting Transgenic Plants in Europe", CASRIP Newsletter, Summer 1999, Vol 6, Issue 1, Center for Advanced Research and Study on Intellectual Property, University of Washington School of Law, Seattle, USA.
Available online at http://www.law.washington.edu/Casrip/newsletter/newsv6i1Perdue.html or write casrip@law.washington.edu 

The Yurayaco Declaration of the Unión de Médicos Indígenas Yageceros de la Amazonia Colombiana (UMIYAC), Yurayaco, Colombia, June 1999.
Available online at http://www.amazonteam.aa.psiweb.com/ethnobiology/declare.html 

The American Inventors Protection Act of 1999 was signed into law in the USA on 29 November. Section 705 of the Act calls for a study to be completed within six months on "potential risks to the United States biotechnology industry relating to biological deposits in support of biotechnology patents." 
Available online at http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ahrpa/opa/bulletin/hr1907ih.htm 

Robert W Herdt, "Enclosing the Global Plant Genetic Commons", paper prepared for delivery at the China Center for Economic Research, 24 May 1999, Rockefeller Foundation, New York, USA. 
Available online at http://www.rockfound.org/rocktext/t_reports/t_proprights/t_paper1.html or write webinfo@rockfound.org 

Documentos del taller Iniciativa BIOTRADE COLOMBIA que se realizó en Villa de Leyva, los días 23, 24 y 25 de marzo de 1999. // Documents from the BIOTRADE COLOMBIA workshop, held 23-25 March 1999 in Villa de Leyva. 
Available online in a mix of Spanish and English at http://www.humboldt.org.co/documentos.htm 

Lakshmi Sarma, "Biopiracy: twentieth century imperialism in the form of international agreements", Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, Number 13, 1999, pp 107-136. 
Available on request (Word 6, 106kb) from grain@baylink.mozcom.com 

Darell A Posey (editor), "Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity", United Nations Environment Program and Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1999. (ISBN: 1-85339-397-5 hardback or 1-85339-394-0 paperback) 
To order, please visit http://www.oneworld.org/itdg/index.html or email itdg@itdg.org.uk 

Our Culture : Our Future. Report on Australian Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights, published by Michael Frankel & Company, Solicitors, through a joint commissioned project by ATSIC and AIATSIS, September 1999. 
Available online at http://www.icip.lawnet.com.au/index.html 

World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), Roundtable on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge, WIPO Headquarters, Geneva, 1-2 November 1999. 
The documents prepared for the meeting are available in English at http://www.wipo.org/eng/main.htm under Meetings --> Past Events --> Rountable on IP and TK.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), "Legal and other appropriate forms of protection for the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity", note by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/WG8J/1/2) for the First Meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the CBD, to be held on 27-31 March 2000 in Seville, Spain. 
Available online, with other papers for this meeting, at http://www.biodiv.org/indig/Wg8j1/index.html 

An Informal Survey of the Notification and Review of National Intellectual Property Laws under the WTO TRIPS Agreement, prepared by Australia as a contribution to the technical cooperation work of the APEC Intellectual Property Rights Expert Group, October 1999. 
Available online at http://dfat.gov.au/trips/ 

Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and Dr. Terje Traavik, "Why We Should Reject Biotech Patents from TRIPS: Scientific Briefing on TRIPS Article 27.3(b)", Institute of Science in Society, UK, 21 November 1999. 
Available online at http://www.i-sis.org under Biosafety & Biopatents on Life --> Brief Notes & Updates

Devinder Sharma, "Selling Out: The Cost of Free Trade for India's Food Security", UK Food Group, London, UK, February 2000, 40 pp. 
To order please contact eeg@sdalt.ernet.in or dsharma@ndf.vsnl.net.in 

Indigenous Peoples and the Law is an online institute of law affecting indigenous peoples. It aims to provide links to the best and latest articles available on the internet. 
Original essays and considered reader responses are also published on this site http://www.kennett.co.nz/law/indigenous/index.html 

Gregory Aharonian, author and publisher of PATNEWS, has launched a new website focusing on the economics and legal analysis of patents for software/Internet/e-commerce and biotechnology/bioinformatics, http://www.bustpatents.com 

GRAIN (2000). "For a full review of TRIPS 27.3(b): an update on where developing countries stand with the push to patent life at WTO", Barcelona, March, 12 pp. 
Available online at http://www.grain.org/publications/reports/tripsfeb00.htm
A PDF version, plus translations in French and Spanish, will be posted soon. Contact grain@bcn.servicom.es for further information.

Commission on Intellectual and Industrial Property, International Chamber of Commerce, "TRIPS and the Biodiversity Convention: What Conflict?" (1999) and "Current and emerging intellectual property issues for business" (2000). ICC, Paris. 
Both available online at: http://www.iccwbo.org/home/menu_intellectual_property.asp 

Jennar, Raoul Marc (2000). "Biopiracy above the law? European Directive 98/44 violates eight international instruments!" or "La biopiraterie au-dessus des lois? La directive europenne 98/44 viole huit instruments internationaux!", Oxfam Solidarity, Brussels, 11 pp. 
Available by email in English or French. To receive a copy, please contact Raoul.Jennar@oxfamsol.be  indicating which language you prefer.

Kerr, W. A., Hobbs, J. E., and Yampoin, R. (1999). "Intellectual Property Protection, Biotechnology and Developing Countries: Will the TRIPS be Effective?", AgBioForum, 2(3&4), University of Missouri, 203-211. 
Available online at http://www.agbioforum.org/ 

Akhtar, Muhammad (1999). "Selling Seeds Short", TWAS Newsletter 11(3), Third World Academy of Sciences, Trieste, July-September, pages 4-5. 
Available online at http://www.ictp.trieste.it/~twas/TWAS.html#News  Click on [TWAS Newsletter Vol. 11 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 1999)]

Footer, Mary (2000). "Intellectual Property Rights". Trade & Investment Background Briefing No. 6, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton. Available online as http://www.dfid.gov.uk/public/what/pdf/iepd_ti6.pdf 

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Hanne%20Svarstad%20and%20Shivcharn%20S.%20Dhillion%20(eds.)," to (Approximately pp. 220 2000, Oslo, Forlag, Spartacus North,? the in Medicines South Biodiversity From Bioprospecting: Responding US$27) 
http://www.sum.uio.no/bioprospecting.htm. Ordering information by email: nlhas@onhine.no 

Prof Kamil Puri, "Is traditional or cultural knowledge a form of intellectual property?", WP 01/00, Oxford Electronic Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, January 2000. 
http://www.oiprc.ox.ac.uk/EJWP0100.html 

Dr. Gerald Bodeker, "Indigenous medical knowledge: the law and politics of protection", WP 03/00, Oxford Electronic Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, March 2000. 
http://www.oiprc.ox.ac.uk/EJWP0300.html 

Lorenzo Muelas Hurtado, "Access to the resources of biodiversity and indigenous peoples", Occasional Papers, Edmonds Institute, Edmonds, 1999. 
English: http://www.edmonds-institute.org/muelaseng.htm
Español: http://www.edmonds-institute.org/muelasesp.html 

Daily coverage plus a summary report of the Fifth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (Nairobi, 15-26 May 2000) is available from the International Institute for Sustainable Development. IPR was under discussion in relation to many aspects of the Convention: access to genetic resources, benefit-sharing, the rights of indigenous and local communities, conflict between TRIPS and the CBD, etc. 
http://www.iisd.ca/biodiv/cop5/ or info@iisd.ca 

Jorge Cabrera-Medaglia, "Soberanía, derechos, propiedad intelectual y ambiente", Revista Acta Académica, Universidad Autónoma de Centro América, Número 26, pp 249-257, ISSN 1017-7507, Mayo 2000. 
http://www.uaca.ac.cr/acta/2000may/jcabrera.htm 

"Genetically modified organisms and intellectual property rights: What stakes?", synthesis of the panafrican workshop held in M'balmayo and Yaoundé from 8 to 13 November on Exchanges, Training and Information on the Impact of GMOs and IPR in Agriculture, Réseau Agricultures Paysannes et Modernisation en Afrique (APM-AFRIQUE), Yaoundé, November 1999.
Available in French or English from apm@camnet.cm in either print or electronic (Word) form. Please specify your preferences.

Rural Advancement Foundation International, "Biopiracy - RAFI's Sixth Annual Update. Captain Hook, the Cattle Rustlers, and the Plant Privateers: Biopiracy of Marine, Plant, and Livestock Continues", RAFI Communique, 11 May 2000. 
http://www.rafi.org 

Dr. M. D. Nair, "Winning the war against bio-colonisation", The Hindu, 17 May 2000. A perspective from India's pharmaceutical industry on the revocation of the neem patent and how to reconcile TRIPS with CBD. 
http://www.indiaserver.com/thehindu/2000/05/17/stories/0617000a.htm 

Commonwealth Science Council, "The Goa Statement", adopted at the First Commonwealth Science Forum on Access, Bioprospecting, DNA-Fingerprinting, Intellectual Property Rights and Benefit-Sharing & The Commonwealth, Goa, India, 23-25 September 1999 
http://www.commonwealthknowledge.net/goans.htm 

Yvonne Lin Mei-Jung, "Intellectual Property Rights of the Aboriginal Peoples of Taiwan", translated by Martin Williams, no date provided.
http://www.freespeech.org/taiwanfns/tfn/TFNIPR.html 

Crucible Group II, "Seeding Solutions: Policy Options for Genetic Resources", International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 2000, 120 pp, ISBN 0-88936-926-7, US$25. "Seeding Solutions" is the first of two volumes prepared by Crucible Group II and is currently being translated into French. The second volume, which provides options for legislation on genetic resources, will be published later in the year. The book description, ordering information and (coming soon) free full-text HTML version of "Seeding Solutions" can be found on IDRC's website. 
http://www.idrc.ca/acb/showdetl.cfm?&DID=6&Product_ID=548&CATID=15 or write mhalewood@idrc.ca 

Darrell A. Posey (ed.), "Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity: A Complementary Contribution to the Global Biodiversity Assessment", UNEP and Intermediate Technologies, 1999, is now available online (25MB). 
http://www.unep.org/Biodiversity  to download or http://www.unep.org/Biodiversity/unep.pdf%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20to%20open%20the%20file%20online

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French%20NGOs%20are%20supporting%20an%20international%20appeal%20against%20the%20patenting%20of%20life%20forms%20and%20the%20monopolisation%20of%20genetic%20resources.%20You%20can%20read%20and%20sign%20the%20appeals,%20in%20French%20or%20in%20English,%20directly%20on%20the%20web%20or%20by%20contacting%20them%20through%20email.%20OGM%20Dangers:%20http://www.ogmdangers.org/brevets/Appeal.html%20or%20 http://www.solagral.org/environnement/DPI/index.htm 

"Bio-cultural diversity", COMPAS Newsletter for endogenous development, October 1999, Number 2, ETC Foundation, Leusden.
http://www.etcint.org/COMPAS%20Newsletter/No2/intro_2.html 

Greenpeace Germany, "Serious Deficiencies of Directive 98/44/EC", Working Paper, May 2000, 15 pp. This paper compiles the legal and other arguments of GP Germany against implementation of the European Directive on patenting life forms, which member states are supposed to translate into national law by 30 July 2000. 
Available (Word) in German or English from Christoph.Then@greenpeace.de or download from http://www.sustain.org/biotech/ ("Resources" section)

"IP Matters" is a free newsletter published by Derwent. It is designed to assist interested parties keep abreast of the latest news and trends affecting intellectual property (IP) around the world, and as an international forum in which current IP issues and hot topics can be aired, debated and addressed. Derwent is a patent information provider based in the UK. "IP Matters" can be consulted online, and subscribed to,  at http://www.ipmatters.net/. Those without web access can contact the editor ajoyce@derwent.co.uk

Keith Maskus, "Regulatory Standards in the WTO: Comparing Intellectual Property Rights with Competition Policy, Environmental Protection, and Core Labor Standards", Institute For International Economics, Working Paper 00-1, January 2000. The author defends the inclusion of IPR -- and competition policy -- in the WTO. 
http://www.iie.com/catalog/WP/2000/00-1.htm 

Carlos Vicente, "Biodiversidad en America Latina", un sitio destinado al encuentro y el intercambio entre las organizaciones latinoamericanas y todos y todas aquellos/as que trabajan en defensa de la biodiversidad. Documentos, actualidad, debates, comunicación y recursos sobre organismos genéticamente modificados, biopirateria, defensa de los derechos de los pueblos, patentes y otras formas de propiedad intelectual, biodiversidad agricola, opciones para el desarrollo local sostenible. Una iniciativa de Acción por la Biodiversidad, Argentina. 
http://www.biodiversidadla.org  escribanos a info@biodiversidadla.org 

The International Environmental Law Research Centre (IELC) is an independent, non profit research organisation established in 1995. IELC focuses on the impacts of the TRIPS agreement in the agricultural and pharmaceutical sectors in developing countries and has several full-text documents on its site. 
http://www.ielc.huma.org/ipr.htm or ielc@span.ch.  See also, from the same authors: http://www.the-hindu.com/fline/fl1707/17070710.htm 

TITLE: Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity: A Complementary Contribution to the Global Biodiversity Assessment
LANGUAGE: E.
SALES #: 00.III.D.97
ISBN: 1853393940
PAGES: 756pp.
PRICE: $56.00 US
DESCRIPTION: This enlightening publication presents a sample of the vast array of threads that make up the tapestry of our cultural and spiritual diversity. Some of the articles are philosophical or historical, others are scientific or legal, and some are accounts of personal experiences and beliefs. Taken together, the articles bring out the multidimensional challenges that biodiversity conservation poses, not only to policy-makers and scientists, but to all of us.
To order Toll Free # 1-800-253-9646 (In Canada and USA only)

Biodiversity for Sale: Dismantling the hype about benefit sharing, 'Global Trade and Biodiversity in Conflict' series, Issue no. 4 - April 2000
The fourth issue of the Gaia/GRAIN regular briefing series untangles some of the complicated rhetoric around the 'fair and equitable sharing of benefits' from the commercialisation of biodiversity and traditional knowledge of farmers and indigenous peoples. Current benefit sharing initiatives give little tangible rewards for communities on the ground. The briefing argues that, rather than rapidly turning the forests and farms of the South into a biological marketplace, the starting point for any approach to the sustainable management of biodiversity should be to ensure the clear rights of communities over their own resources.
http://www.grain.org/publications/gtbc/issue4.htm

Privatising the Means for Survival: The Commercialisation of Africa's Biodiversity, 'Global Trade and Biodiversity in Conflict' series, Issue no. 5 - May 2000
Researched and written by Rachel Wynberg of Biowatch South Africa, this Gaia/GRAIN briefing highlights some of the major global trade pressures that are pushing the commercialisation of African biodiversity, from free trade agreements and privatisation of the seed industry to bioprospecting and genetic engineering. The briefing examines how Africa's biodiversity based agriculture and healthcare systems are being affected, and highlights the importance of strengthening these systems, local knowledge, and local and regional economies as a development priority.
http://www.grain.org/publications/gtbc/issue5.htm

TITLE: Le G 8 élargi consacré à la bioéthique se prononce contre la brevetabilité des gènes humains
AUTHOR: Jean-Yves Nau
PUBLICATION: Le Monde
DATE: 26 juin 2000
URL: http://www.lemonde.fr/article/0,2320,seq-2037-74507-QUO,00.html (English translation)

TITLE: Le génome triomphe en mondovision -et- Le ministre de la Recherche
rejette les brevets sur les séquences d'ADN
AUTHORS: François Sergent et Corinne Bensimon
PUBLICATION: Libération
DATE: 27 juin 2000
URL: http://www.liberation.fr/quotidien/semaine/20000627maro.html (English translation)

"Back where it belongs: India emerges victorious from a legal wrangle with the US over the patenting of neem", Down To Earth, Vol 9, No 2, Centre for Science and Environment, 15 June 2000.
http://www.oneworld.org/cse/html/dte/dte20000615/dte_news.htm 

CASRIP Newsletter dated Winter 2000 contains articles on the recent history of US patent law, patentability of genomics in Japan and the definitions of "plant variety" used in European law. The forthcoming Spring 2000 edition promises a feature piece on biodiversity and intellectual property. Produced by the Centre for Advanced Study and Research on Intellectual Property at the University of Washington School of Law.
http://www.law.washington.edu/Casrip/newsletter/newshome.html 

R. Ramachandran, "Challenging the Basmati Patent", Frontline (The Hindu), 13-26 May 2000.
http://www.frontlineonline.com/fl1710/17100790.htm 

Aaron Cosbey, "The Sustainable Development Effects of the WTO TRIPS Agreement: A Focus on Developing Countries", International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, no date provided.
http://iisd1.iisd.ca/trade/trips.htm 

Patricia Cantuaria Marin, "Access to Plant Genetic Resources of Traditional Spiritual Value", May 2000. Using the example of two plants involved in the preparation of Ayahuasca (sacred tea), argues that the spiritual value of biological resources must be accounted for in access legislation, such as the law under discussion in Brazil. Part of a larger PhD thesis.
Copies available (Word) from the author pcantuaria@navegalia.com 

The Centre for International Ethnomedicinal Education and Research has an extensive website devoted to biodiversity-related knowledge and management systems, with articles about bioprospecting, intellectual property, the value of genetic resources, etc.
http://www.cieer.org 

NGOs concerned with agricultural biodiversity and development, building on recent statements made at GFAR and COP5, are organising to pressure governments to come to an agreement on the International Undertaking in time for its presentation to CBD/COP 6. A position paper and a Call to Action outlining the issues are available from Intermediate Technology Development Group (UK) and The Berne Declaration (Switzerland).
http://www.ukabc.org/iu2.htm or Patrick_Mulvany@CompuServe.com 
http://www.evb.ch/bd/food.htm or food@evb.ch 

Ashish Kothari, "Countering biological piracy", The Hindu, 23 June 2000.
http://www.the-hindu.com/stories/05232524.htm 

Anil Gupta, "Rewarding Traditional Knowledge and Contemporary Grassroots Creativity: The Role of Intellectual Property Protection", Draft only for comments. (No date provided, but apparently posted June 2000.)
http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidbiotech/events/anil_gupta_paper.htm or anilg@sristi.org 

International Association for the Protection of Industry Property (AIPPI), "Patentability Requirements and Scope of Protection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Entire Genomes", various documents, April 2000. The membership of the AIPPI examined the question of genomic patenting, and its relation to ethics, morality and "ordre public", during its last Executive Committee meeting. National work group reports reflecting the state of the law in 24 countries (including several developing countries), a summary report of the discussion and AIPPI's resolution on the matter are all available in several languages.
http://www.aippi.org/ (under News --> Executive Committee 8-15.4.2000)

"La brevetabilité du vivant", Dossier spécial, Le Monde.
http://www.lemonde.fr/doss/0,2324,3501-1-QUO-2077,00.html 

A two-part video series entitled "Bio-Piracy", featuring the Basmati Action Group, is apparently available for viewing online from Working TV in Canada.
http://www.workingtv.com/real/real166.html  (Part 1)
http://www.workingtv.com/real/real167.html  (Part 2)

National Consultative Ethics Committee (CCNE, France), "Opinion on a preliminary draft law incorporating transposition into the Code of intellectual property, of a European Parliament and Council Directive 98/44/CE, dated July 6, 1998, on the legal Protection of biotechnological inventions", No. 63, 8 June 2000. The CCNE, summoned by the French government, laid down its opinion in early June that the EU patenting directive, which is supposed to be transposed into national law in all 15 member states by 30 July, should be rewritten. The English translation of the opinion is in process.

Français: http://www.ccne-ethique.org/francais/start.htm
English (forthcoming): http://www.ccne-ethique.org/english/start.htm 

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