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Historical Timeline
From 1700s to the Present


1722 British Privy Council memorandum sets out doctrines of discovery & conquest

1740s Russians begin trading on BC coast

1741 Danish explorer Vitus Bering explores the BC coast

1763 Royal Proclamation of King George III recognizes aboriginal title and rights to land

1770s Captain Cook explores the West Coast

1774-9 Spanish explorer Juan Perez sights Queen Charlotte Islands & visits off Vancouver Island

1775 Juan Francisco de Bodega y Quadra penetrates close to the Nass River

1776 Small pox epidemic

1778 Captain Cook charts Nootka Sound on his third expedition to the Pacific

1785 Maritime trading voyages begin along Pacific coast (to 1820s)

1787 Captain George Dixon meets Haida and names the Queen Charlotte Islands

1788 Alaska is claimed as Russian territory

1789 Alexander Mackenzie reaches Arctic Ocean and explores Slave & Mackenzie Rivers

1789 Spanish build fort in Nootka Sound

1790 Nootka convention between Spain and Britain

1792 Captain George Vancouver charts most of Georgia Straight

1793 Alexander Mackenzie reaches Pacific in first overland crossing of North America

1780s Epidemics appear on the Pacific Northwest coast


1803 Maquinna’a people attack and kill most of the crew of the Boston

1804 Fort Simpson established by Northwest Company

1805 Lewis & Clark expedition first to travel overland in US from Atlantic to Pacific

1805 Fort St. John established by Northwest Company

1805 Mcleod’s Lake post established by Simon Fraser

1805 Fort Nelson established on Liard River

1805 Hudson Hope post established at Rocky Mountain Portage

1806 Fort St. James established on Stuart Lake

1806-7 Fort Fraser post established by HBC at Fraser Lake

1807 Road built from Fort St. James to Fort McLeod

1807 David Thompson visits the Kutenai. Kutenai House established

1808 Simon Fraser explores Fraser River and meets Indians at Lytton

1811 David Thompson reaches the mouth of the Columbia River

1811 The ship Tonquin is captured and the crew killed in the Clayoquot area

1812 Fort Astoria acquired and renamed Fort George after War of 1812

1812 Astorian and Northwest Company establish posts in Kamloops

1820 Permanent HBC post established at Fort George

1821 Northwest Company and Hudson’s Bay Company merge, known as HBC

1822 Fort Kilmaurs (Babine) established

1824 Fatal epidemic (cause unidentified) in Columbia River drainage (to 1825)

1824 54° 40’ established as boundary separating American and Russian spheres of influence

1825 HBC becomes active on the northwest coast

1826 Fort Vancouver established by HBC on Columbia River

1827 Fort Langley established

1828 Chief Factor John McLoughlin takes charge of area west of the Rockies

1828 James Douglas is captured in Carrier territory and released after negotiations

1828 Clallum village shelled by HBC gunboat

1828 Fort Alexandria established

1829 Fort Halkett established by HBC on Liard River

1829 Rev. Jonathan Smith Green (Protestant) tours Northwest coast

1830 Indian Affairs transferred from military to civilian jurisdiction in the Canadas (east)

1830 First Chilcotin post established by HBC

1830s HBC begins innoculating Native people against small pox

1831 Fort Simpson built on Nass River then moved to Tsimshian Peninsula

1832 A.C. Anderson of the HBC arrives at the Columbia River

1833 Fort McLoughlin established in 1833 in Lama Passage, it was later abandoned in 1843

1834 James Douglas becomes Chief Trader of the HBC

1835 Coal deposit at Fort Rupert publicized

1836 HBC Chaplain and missionary Reverend Herbert Beaven arrives at Fort Vancouver

1836 Small pox epidemic in northern BC and southern Alaskan coast (to 1838)

1836 Indian reports of coal on Vancover Island confirmed

1837 Dease Lake post established by HBC

1838 HBC granted 21 year exclusive hunting and trading license to northwest coast

1838 First Roman Catholic priests arrive at Fort Vancouver (F. Blanchet and M. Demers)

1839 James Douglas becomes Chief Factor of HBC

1840s Jesuit Priest Father Pierre De Smet is in Kootenays and Okanagan

1840s Father John Nobilis active in northern New Caledonia

1842 Fort Victoria established by HBC

1842 Father Demers active in New Caledonia

1843 HBC begins laying out land boundaries

1846 Oregon Treaty establishes 49th parallel as US-British boundary

1846 HBC’s Pacific Headquarters shifts from Oregon (Columbia River) to Victoria

1846-7 A.C. Anderson explores routes between Thompson and Lower Fraser Rivers

1847 Measles epidemic (to 1850)

1848-9 Fort Hope established by HCB

1849 Royal Charter grants Vancouver Island to the HBC

1849 Richard Blanshard becomes first Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island

1849 Chief Factor James Douglas receives direction to negotiate with VI Tribes

1849 Fort Rupert established by HBC to supply coal to an American steamship line

1849 Coal deposits at Nanaimo publicized

1850 Douglas concludes treaties in Victoria, Sooke & Metchosin

1850 Measles epidemic spreads from coast to interior

1850s OMI Bishop Pierre Paul Durieu comes to the Northwest coast

1850s Peter O’Reilly is Stipendiary Magistrate in Langley, then Fort Hope

1850-1 Royal Navy destroys Newitti Village

1851 Douglas becomes Governor but remains Chief Factor of the HBC (to 1858)

1851 Douglas concludes treaties in Fort Rupert

1851 Joseph Despard Pemberton becomes Colonial Surveyor

1851 Gunter’s Chain unit of land measurement introduced

1851 Gold found on Queen Charlotte Islands. Gunboats sent to Queen Charlotte Islands

1852 Douglas concludes treaties on Saanich peninsula

1852-3 Cowichan crisis. Gunboat dispatched

1853 Peak of the California gold rush

1852 James Douglas becomes Lieutenant-Governor of the Queen Charlotte Islands

1854 Douglas concludes treaty in Nanaimo

1855 Nanaimo coalfields purchased by HBC

1856-7 Nlaka’pamux force American miners to retreat

1857 Anglican missionary William Duncan arrives in Victoria

1857 Anglicans establish Indian school at Fort Simpson

1857 Methodists establish Indian school in Nanaimo

1857 British Parliamentary inquiry into the affairs of the HBC

1857 Colonial proclamation claims all gold mines. Gold mining licences introduced

1858 Edward Bulwer-Lytton is Secretary of State for the Colonies

1858 British Columbia Act. New Caledonia becomes Colony of British Columbia

1858 James Douglas resigns from HBC to become Governor of mainland Colony of BC

1858 British government passes act establishing direct rule on the mainland

1858 Colonel R. C. Moody is Commissioner of Lands & Works (CLW) to 1864

1858 Royal Engineers undertake mapping of BC mainland

1858 Douglas reserves are laid out on BC mainland (to 1864) under Douglas’ policy

1858 Colonial proclamation states that all land is vested in the crown

1858 Indian people have right to pre-empt vacant crown land during Douglas’s governorship

1858 Oblates of Mary Immaculate establish a centre at Esquimalt

1858 Gunboats sent to New Caledonia (BC)

1858 Fraser River Gold Rush

1858 Steam boats penetrate Fraser River as far as Yale

1858 Pack trail is established between Yale and Lytton

1858 Construction of Harrison-Lillooet road commenced

1859 Gold Fields Act sets out Gold Commissioner’s duties and miners’ water rights

1859 HBC trading license on Vancouver Island expires. James Douglas becomes Governor

1859 J.D. Pemberton becomes Surveyor General of Vancouver Island

1859 Douglas appoints first Gold Commissioners & Stipendiary Magistrates

1859 Douglas reduces price of surveyed land

1859 First Methodist missionaries at work in BC

1859 Father Charles Pandosy (OMI) active in the Okanagan. Catholic mission established

1859 Peter O’Reilly (Joseph Trutch’s brother-in-law) becomes Assistant Gold Commissioner

1859 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (Anglican) comes to BC

1859 Methodists E. Evans, A. Browning, E. Robson and E. White active in Victoria

1860s Douglas or pre-Confederation reserves laid out (mostly to 1864; none after 1871)

1860s William Cox is Gold Commissioner at Rock Creek

1860s Commercial fishing begins to develop

1860 Edgar Dewdney and Walter Moberly open Dewdney trail between Hope & Similkameen

1860 Royal Engineers widen Douglas-Lilloet trail into wagon road

1860 Similkameen post established by HBC

1860 Proclamation establishes procedures for pre-emption of unsurveyed agricultural land

1860 J.D. Pemberton is Surveyor-General Vancouver Island (to 1864)

1860 Victoria Gas Company founded

1860 Anglicans establish Indian school near Victoria

1861 Legislative Assembly of VI asks England for funds to extinguish aboriginal title; denied

1861 Pre-emption Amendment Act

1861 St. Mary’s Catholic mission established near Mission City (to 1984)

1861 Gold discovered in the Upper Peace River region

1861 Harrison-Lillooet wagon road completed

1861 Proclamation consolidates laws relating to the settlement of unsurveyed crown lands

1861 Country Land Purchase Act

1861 Gold Commissioners also become Assistant Commissioner of Lands

1861 John Carmichael Haynes is Gold Commissioner at Rock Creek

1861 Coqualeetza residential school established at Sardis (to 1940)

1861 Pre-Emption Purchase Act

1861 Colonial policy: Reserves to be defined as pointed out by the natives themselves

1861 Pre-Emption Consolidation Act

1862 Cariboo region divided into two parts, Cariboo East & West (to 1865)

1862 Metlakatla mission established (to 1887)

1862 Thomas Crosby (Protestant) active in Nanaimo

1862 Indians allowed to pre-empt land conditionally

1862 Smallpox epidemic reduces aboriginal populations in BC (to 1863)

1862 Peak of the Cariboo Gold Rush

1862 Gold rush on Stikine

1862 Building of Cariboo Road between Yale and Barkerville commenced (completed in 1865)

1863 Royal Engineers recalled to England; some individuals stay in BC

1863 Mining District Act

1863 William Cox is Justice of the Peace and Gold Commissioner for the Cariboo

1863 Road between Spence’s Bridge and Clinton completed

1863 Peter O’Reilly is a member of the BC Legislative Council (to 1871)

1863 St. Mary’s mission established by the Oblates

1864 Peter O’Reilly becomes Chief Gold Commissioner

1864 Western Union Telegraph Company decides to build telegraph through BC

1864 First Telegraph Act

1864 Rev. Robert Doolan begins mission among the Nishga

1864 B.W. Pearse is Surveyor General of Vancouver Island (to 1866)

1864 Governor Douglas retires

1864 Wagon road to Cottonwood completed

1864 Ahousat villages destroyed by Royal Navy

1864 Burrard mission established in Squamish territory

1864 Joseph Trutch is Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works (to 1871)

1864 Douglas policy is reversed. Douglas reserves cut back by CCLW Trutch

1864 Joseph Trutch is Surveyor General for BC

1864 J.C. Haynes is Gold Commissioner for Kootenay area

1864 Chilcotin Nation uprising against Bute Inlet wagon road building party. Manhunt follows

1864 Some members of the Chilcotin Nation tried and hanged for uprising deaths

1864 Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition

1864 Legislative Council resolution calls for adjustment of Fraser Valley reserves

1864 Queen’s birthday celebration. Indians ask Governor Seymour to protect their lands

1864 British Vancouver Island Coal Mining Company buys HBC coal fields at Nanaimo

1865 Construction of Dewdney Trail completed

1865 An Ordinance for regulating the Acquisition of Land in BC

1865 International Telegraph Ordinance

1865 New Westminster is connected by telegraph to the United States

1865 Indian Graves Ordinance

1865 Western Union builds telegraph line north to Quesnel

1865 First grazing legislation enacted

1865 Philip Nind is Gold Commissioner at Lytton

1865 Vancouver Island Legislative Assembly calls for reserves to be opened up to settlement

1865 Fort Rupert village destroyed by HMS Clio

1866 Chilliwack is connected by telegraph to the United States

1866 Post established at Hagwilget by HBC

1866 Post established at Quesnel by HBC

1866 Union of colonies of Vancouver Island and BC

1866 Western Union Telegraph line & trail reaches Kispiox River

1866 Legislative Council discusses the adjustment of Indian reserves

1866 Pre-Emption Ordinance bars Indian people from pre-empting land (to 1953)

1866 New Westminister becomes capital of new colony of BC

1866 North America and Europe connected by cable

1867 Conveyance of Vancouver Island from HBC to the crown

1867 St. Joseph’s mission established in Williams Lake

1867 Constitution Act s.91(24). Canada responsible for Indians and lands reserved for Indians

1867 Barkerville post established by HBC

1867 An Ordinance to prevent the violation of Indian Graves

1867 Reverend Good establishes St. Paul’s mission in Lytton area

1867 Petition from 70 BC Indian Chiefs forwarded by Governor Seymour to England

1867 Legislative Council motion calls for Lower Fraser reserves to be defined & reduced

1867 Governor Seymour says reserves will not be reduced without his personal inspection

1867 Alaska is transferred to the US from Russia

1867 Gold Mining Ordinance

1868 Capital of BC moved to Victoria from New Westminister

1868 Fisheries Act of Canada does not affect BC Fisheries

1868 Matsqui Indians forward petition protesting the reduction of their reserve by Trutch

1868 Dominion passes Rupert’s Land Act

1869 Anthony Musgrave is Governor of united colony (to 1871)

1869 HBC acquires post at Masset

1869 Superintendent General of Indian Affairs empowered to grant location tickets

1869 Transcontinental railway link completed in American territory

1869 An Ordinance respecting Indian Reserves empowers local officials to settle land disputes

1869 Mineral Ordinance

1869 Omineca gold rush begins

1870s Economic depression in BC

1870s Methodists active in Victoria and Nanaimo areas

1870 Terms of Union confirms Dominion government’s responsibility for Indians

1870 Transfer of HBC lands to Canada

1870 Land Ordinance. Crown reserves right to resume land for roads

1870 British North America (BNA) Act gives province control over land (s. 92)

1870 Timber lands begin to be leased

1870 Fort Grahame established by HBC

1870 Mission established at Cowichan

1870 Pelagic sealing industry established (to 1911)

1871 Bella Bella post established by HBC at old Ft. Loughlin site

1871 Telegraph line from New Westminster to Quesnel comes under Dominion jurisdiction

1871 Joseph Trutch is Lieutenant-Governor (to 1876)

1871 BC enters Confederation. Indians remain the responsibility of the federal government

1871 Indian Affairs administered by the Secretary of State (to 1873)

1871 BC Government agents take over all non-mining duties from Gold Commissioners

1871 Exploratory surveys to determine route of CPR begun (to 1879)

1871 BC and Canada begin debate about the size of Indian reserves. Issue never resolved

1871 Constitution Act establishes authority of provincial departments and officials

1871 Lands and Works Department created to survey, map and administer BC Lands

1871 Peter O’Reilly works in Ominica as Gold Commissioner, tax collector and Indian Agent

1871 Canning Industry begins with establishment of Fraser River Canneries

1871 Mission established at Sechelt

1871 Indian people not allowed to fish commercially (to 1923)

1871 Schedule of All Indian Reserves (Surveyed) in the Province of BC (BC)

1871 Port Essington shipping and canning centre founded

1871 Bishop George Hills protests Indian policy to the Dominon

1872 Small pox epidemic in BC

1872 First Central Registry File system called the Red Series (Eastern Canada) established

1872 The right to vote in BC elections withdrawn from Indian people in BC (to 1949)

1872 Dr. Israel Wood Powell appointed (Victoria-based) Indian Superintendent (to 1889)

1872 Dominion Homestead Act

1872 G. A. Walkem is briefly CCLW

1872 Robert Beaven becomes CCLW (to1876)

1872 First railway survey party enters Peace River region

1872 Province makes public education free

1872 San Juan Island becomes part of US

1873 July 1 deadline for starting construction on the CPR expires

1873 Report of J.W. Powell on various tribes in BC including a Schedule of Reserves & Leases

1873 Matthew Baillie Begbie is Chief Justice in BC

1873 Indian Superintendent granted magisterial (enforcement) powers

1873 Sir Alexander Campbell represents the Department of the Interior

1873 Methodist mission established at Fort Simpson.

1873 Metlakatla residential school established (to1908)

1873 Northwest Mounted Police formed

1873 Mission established at Fort St. James

1873 Bill providing for destitute Indians and halfbreeds of BC

1873 I.W. Powell visits coastal Indians

1873 Department of the Interior created. David Laird responsible (to 1876)

1873 Indian & Indian Lands branch set up under the Dept. of the Interior (to 1880)

1874 Petition of chiefs of the Lower Fraser expressing discontent over land settlement in BC

1874 BC Indians concerns presented to Privy Council by Interior Minister David Laird

1874 BC Land Act lets province alienate land without regard for aboriginal title. Disallowed

1874 BC Gazette notice reserving 20-mile wide strip along east coast of VI for a railway

1874 Glenora post established by HBC at Telegraph Creek

1874 St. Eugene mission established at Cranbrook

1874 Indian Board established in BC (to 1875)

1874 L. Vankoughnet is the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs in Ottawa

1874 Earl of Carnarvon is Secretary of State for the Colonies

1874 I.W. Powell is Visiting Superintendent & Indian Commissioner (to 1880)

1874 James Lenihan is New Westminster-based Assistant Indian Superintendent (to 1875)

1874 Father Grandidier expresses concern about the grievances of BC Indians

1874 Crosby Girls Home in Port Simpson established (to 1948)

1875 BC land Act of 1874 is disallowed by Canada because it disregards aboriginal title

1875 Papers Connected with the Indian Land Question published as BC Sessional Papers

1875 Canadian Geological Survey’s G.M. Dawson begins explorations in BC (to 1878)

1875 Revised BC Land Act provides for Indian reserves (s. 60)

1875 Esquimalt and Naniamo Railway Act (grant of lands for railway purposes to Canada)

1875 Sub-agents are hired in various districts

1875 Land is available to settlers free of charge (to 1879)

1875 G.M. Dawson explores BC for the Canadian Geological Survey (through 1878)

1875 Indian Board abolished in favour of Indian superintendency system

1875 BC divided into two superintendencies, Victoria & Fraser (located in New Westminster)

1875 James Lenihan is Superintendent of the Fraser (Mainland) Superintendency

1875 I.W. Powell is Superintendent of the Victoria (VI & N. Coast) Superintendency

1875 Superintendents report to Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs in Ottawa

1875 Superintendents required to submit yearly activity reports to headquarters

1876 David Mills represents the Department of the Interior (to 1878)

1876 Canadian Governor General Lord Dufferin appeals for fair treatment of Indian claims

1876 Joint Indian Reserve Commission is established; reversionary interest is shared equally

1876 A.C. Anderson represents Dominion on Joint Indian Reserve Commission (to 1877)

1876 A. McKinley represents the province on the Joint Indian Reserve Commision (to 1877)

1876 G.M. Sproat is the joint federal/provincial representative on the JIRC (to 1880)

1876 First Federal Indian Act passed; consolidates all previous legislation concerning Indians

1876 Federal proclamation excludes Indian lands and resources in BC from the Indian Act

1876 James Lenihan makes a confidential report on the Indians of BC

1876 G.M. Sproat memorandum on Minister of Interior on Indian rights

1876 Federal PCOC extends federal Fisheries Act to BC; A.C. Anderson is Fisheries Inspector

1876 F.G. Vernon is CCLW (to 1878)

1876 Lower Post established by HBC on Liard River; McDame’s Creek Post on Dease River

1876 Order-in-council proclaims that the Fisheries Act of Canada extends to BC

1876 Indian people excluded from voting in municipal elections

1876 Anglican mission estabished at Masset village

1877 Indian reserve allotments require Executive Council approval (in addition to CCLW)

1877 Joint Reserve Commission issues report with some census information

1877 Powell appointed medical officer for Victoria Superintendency

1877 Kimsquit (Bella Coola) village destroyed by Royal Navy gunboat

1877 Federal Fisheries Act takes effect in BC

1877 St. Louis mission established near Kamloops

1877 Cannery industry established on the Skeena River

1878 A. C. Anderson’s Census report of the Shuswap and Okanagan Tribes

1878 G.M. Sproat is sole Reserve Commissioner (to 1880)

1878 G.M. Sproat reports on Indian fishing places

1878 G.M. Sproat reports on arable and grazing lands for the Indians

1878 Sir John A. Macdonald represents the Department of the Interior (to 1883)

1878 Forty-mile wide Railway Belt area from Yellowhead Pass to Burrard Inlet is reserved

1878 Anglican Church establishes presence in Alert Bay

1878 Telephone is used in BC for the first time

1878 G.A. Walkem is CCLW (to 1882)

1878 George Anthony Walkem is Lieutenant-Governor (to 1882)

1878 Federal fishing regulations introduced in BC

1878 Chiefs & Headmen of the Lower Fraser express desire to have IRC settle their affairs

1878 IRC Sproat advises no water allotments for settlers until Indian water rights dealt with

1879 Crown Lands Amendment Act

1879 Surveyors instructed to show all Indian villages, cabins and fields on their plans

1879 Surveyors instructed to accurately show all roads & trails (and their directions) in plans

1879 Federal government announces CPR will follow Fraser River route in BC

1879 Lower Fraser (Yale, New Westminster & Coast Districts) Agency census (to 1880)

1879 Cemetery Act

1879 Nlaka’pamux assembly at Lytton discusses Indian Land Question

1879 Tsimshian confiscate nets of a cannery trespassing on their land

1879 Burrard Inlet chosen as CPR line terminus

1879 Victoria linked to Nanaimo by telegraph

1879 Order-in-council introduces salmon fishing licences in Canada

1879 Indian Superintendent given authority over Indian Reserve Commissioner (to 1898)

1880s I.W. Powell is Dominion’s Inspector of Indian Agents

1880s Rev. T. Crosby protests the treatment of Indians & the way reserves are being laid out

1880s Dogfish oil industry established

1880 G.M. Sproat resigns from Indian Reserve Commission

1880 Peter O’Reilly is sole IRC; reports to Visiting Superintendent (to 1898)

1880 Joseph Trutch is Dominion agent in BC on railway and Indian matters

1880 DIA is created; Superintendent General is the Minister of the Interior (to 1936)

1880 Canning industry begins on the Skeena River

1880 An Act to further amend the Indian Act prohibits Indians from assembling (to 1927)

1880 W.S. Gore is Surveyor-General of BC (to 1891)

1880 Construction of BC portion of the CPR begins; contributes to increased immigration

1880 Two superintendencies are abolished to make way for Indian agency structure

1880 Powell is sole Visiting Superintendent & Commissioner for all of BC (to 1889)

1881 DIA forms six Indian agencies

1881 Cowichan agency created

1881 Fraser River (or Lower Fraser) agency created (to 1910)

1881 West Coast agency created

1881 First Kamloops agency created (to 1884)

1881 Kwawkewlth agency created

1881 First Okanagan agency created (to 1884)

1881 Indian agents report directly to Indian Superintendent for BC (until 1910)

1881 Canneries established in the Nass River and Vancouver Island (East) Regions

1881 Construction on BC CPR line begins (to 1886)

1881 Chief Mountain leads a Nisga’a protest delegation to Victoria

1882 Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Act repealed

1882 Census of Indians taken in BC (through 1883)

1882 Second Central Registry File system called the Black Series established (includes BC)

1882 Robert Beaven is CCLW (to 1883)

1882 Deacon Charles Harrison sent to Metlakatla

1882 Blue Bell and Silver King mines in operation. Nelson established

1883 Province starts granting crown lands for railway purposes

1883 BC Gazette notice regarding E & N Railway Land Grant rescinded & amended

1883 William Smithe is CCLW (to 1887)

1883 Northwest Coast agency created, but not active until 1888 (to 1910)

1883 Lillooet agency created

1883 Williams Lake agency created

1883 Railway Belt and Peace River lands are transferred from BC to Canada (to 1930)

1883 Federal Railway Act

1883 Act to Encourage Coal Mining

1883 Discussion commences about levying poll tax on Indians living off-reserve (to 1919)

1884 Settlement Act transfers first land grant for Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway

1884 Dominion Lands Act

1884 Vancouver Island Settlers Rights Agreement

1884 BC Land Act (posted notices required for diversion of water)

1884 Kamloops & Okanagan agencies amalgamated into Kamloops-Okanagan agency (to 1910)

1884 Motion in BC Legislature to remove Indians from valuable land. Defeated

1884 A.S. Farwell and G.M. Sproat reports on Indians in the Kootenays

1884 Indian Advancement Act introduces annual elections system

1884 Timber licences introduced

1884 Kamloops and Okanagan Agencies amalgamated (to 1910)

1884 All Hallow’s School for Girls established at Yale (to 1918)

1885 Changes to the Indian Act prohibit potlatching (to 1951)

1885 Return (Schedule) or Indian Reserves in BC tabled (BC)

1885 Steamers and ferry in operation on Thompson River

1885 Thomas White represents the Department of the Interior (to 1888)

1885 Tsimshiam delegation goes to Ottawa to discuss the Indian Land Question

1885 DIA creates Statistics & School, Correspondence, Registry and Technical branches

1885 Completion of the CPR from Montreal to Port Moody

1885 Father A.G. Morice active in northern BC

1885 Dominion adapts regulations for surveying and administering Railway Belt lands

1885-6 Bella Coola representatives tour Germany to exhibit their culture

1886 Nisga’a holding meetings on the Indian Land Question & resist surveyors

1886 Act to amend the Land Act

1886 Franz Boas begins to focus on Indians of Northwest coast

1886 Department empowered to execute Letters Patent conveying Indian lands to third parties

1886 Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway is operational

1886 Stony Creek post established near Vanderhoof

1886 Kootenay agency created

1886 DIA empowered to register Letters Patent conveying Indian land to third parties

1887 Nisga’a and Tsimshian delegation travels to Victoria to discuss Indian Land Question

1887 Commission of Enquiry into the condition of the Indians of the Northwest coast

1887 Northwest Coast Agency established

1887 White-Robson Conference addresses Indian water rights & other issues

1887 Regulations re: mining on abandoned or surrendered lands in Railway Belt introduced

1887 F.G. Vernon is CCLW (to 1894)

1887 CPR reaches Vancouver

1887 First American Railway line (Great Northern) reaches into BC

1887 Federal PCOC #1887 provides for access roads within the Railway Belt

1887 Victoria Electric Illuminating Company formed

1887 William Duncan and many Tsimshian move from Metlakatla to Alaska

1888 St. Catherine’s Milling Case - Privy Council recognizes Indian rights to land

1888 An Act to Amend the Land Act of 1884 requires gazetted notices for water diversion

1888 Report on the Enquiry into condition of Indians of the Northwest Coast published

1888 Spirit River post established by HBC

1888 Boarding school for girls established at Alert Bay (to 1905)

1888 BC passes first forestry legislation

1888 Fishing licences or permits become a requirement on the Fraser River

1888 Federal policy creates Indian food fishery. Indians not allowed to fish commercially

1888 Skeena River uprising

1888 Indian Graves Ordinance repealed by federal government

1888 Small pox outbreak (to 1889)

1888 Dr. Arthur Pearse, based in Yale, becomes "Missionary Doctor to the Indians"

1889 Small pox epidemic

1889 DIA creates Land & Timber, Statistical, Supply & School branches

1889 Precious Metals Case establishes provincial jurisdiction over precious metals in RB

1889 A.W.Vowell replaces Powell as Visiting Superintendent & IR Commissioner (to 1910)

1889 All hallows boarding school established at Yale (to 1918)

1889 Telegraph line constructed along west coast of Vancouver Island (to 1890)

1889 Federal fishing permit system introduced

1889 Babine & Upper Skeena agency created (usually called simply the Babine agency)

1890s Federal fishing regulations affecting BC Indians enforced

1890s Mining boom in the Kootenays (to World War One)

1890 Nisga’a establish a Land Committee

1890 Black River post established by HBC

1890 Kuper Island Indian residential school established (to 1975)

1890 Kamloops Indian residential school established (to 1978)

1890 Indian Reserve Commissioner O’Reilly directed not to allot fishing privileges

1890 St. Joseph’s residential school opens in Williams Lake (to 1981)

1891 Alberni day school (later residential school) established by Presbyterians

1891 Hagaga newspaper published

1891 Kamloops Wawa newspaper published (to 1917)

1891 Connolly (Bear Lake) post established by HBC

1891 BC railways granted 100-foot rights-of-way through crown lands

1891 Halibut fishing industry established (to 1924)

1891 Vernon & Nelson Telephone Company incorporated (becomes BC Telephone in 1904)

1892 Federal government passes PCOC to regulate the operation of residential schools

1892 List of Reserves within the Railway Belt drawn up

1892 Aboriginal people from BC participate in Chicago Columbian Exposition

1893 Report on the Census of Indians (to 1895)

1893 Hayter Reed appointed Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs

1893 Boarding school for girls established at Port Simosn (to 1920s)

1893 Nanakwa Indian newspaper published out of Kitamaat (to 1906)

1893-4 Economic depression

1894 Federal regulations restrict Indian fishing devices. Permission required to fish for food

1894 Peak of pelagic sealing industry in BC

1894 Dominion runs out of funds for surveys of Indian reserves in BC

1895 Indian Act amended

1895 Department of Indian Affairs starts mandatory band elections in some parts of Canada

1895 Boundaries of the Railway Belt are defined

1895 Headquarters introduces first file subject index

1895 Day school established at Ahousat by Presbyterians

1895 Smelter built in Trail

1895 Provincial Registry Act allows landowners in RB to register titles with the province

1896 Discovery of gold in the Klondike

1896 BC ceases alienating crown timber

1896 Sir Clifford Sifton is responsible for the Department of the Interior (to 1905)

1896 BC advised by Canada not to grant water rights within Railway Belt

1896 Elizabeth Long Memorial Girls Home established in Kitamat village (to 1941)

1896 BC Indians request that the federal government protect their chum fishery

1897 Canada Sessional Papers indicate the total acreage allotted for IRs in nine BC agencies

1897 Water Clauses Consolidation Act (standard form developed for recording water rights)

1897 Bonnington Falls hydro-electric installation becomes operational on Kootenay River

1897 Incorporation of BC Electric Railway Co. Ltd.

1897 James A. Smart appointed Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs

1897 DIA departmental reorganization

1897 Indian fishing devices destroyed by federal officials

1897 Crowsnest Pass Agreement reached regarding a second CPR trunk line

1897 BC passes Companies Act

1898 Schedule of Fisheries allotted to Indians in BC by the IRC prepared

1898 Assembly of Beaver Indians at Ft. St. John demand a treaty

1898 Hydro-electric plant built at Goldstream, near Victoria

1898 Silver Plate mine opened in Hedley

1898 Aschcroft Water, Electric & Improvement Co. builds dam on Bonaparte River

1898 Indian Reserve Commissioner Peter O’Reilly retires

1898 St. Eugene’s residential school established in Cranbrook (to 1970)

1898 St. Francis/Squamish residential school established in North Vancouver (to 1959)

1898 A. W. Vowell is Indian Commissioner and Dominion Superintendent for BC (to 1910)

1898 W.S. Gore is Surveyor General of BC (to 1905)

1899 Lands and Works Branch of Department of Lands separate

1899 Treaty 8 is concluded; adhesions continue until 1914

1899 Boer (South African) War. Indian soldiers from BC participate (to 1902)


1900 Forest sector begins to dominate BC economy

1900 Beaver Indians sign Treaty 8 at Fort St. John

1900 Christie/Kakawis residential school established (to 1983)

1901 BC premier requests Terms of Union be renegotiated and that reserve sizes be re-assessed

1901 National census

1901 Incorporation of Kootenay Central Railway Company

1901 Incorporation of Kettle River Valley Railway Company

1901 Board of Fishery Commissioners & BC Department of Fisheries established (to 1957)

1901 Largest sockeye run for the Fraser River recorded

1901 Stave Lake Power Company Incorporated

1901 St. George’s residential school established (to 1979)

1902 Dominion of Canada Schedule of all Indian Reserves published

1902 BC Packers established

1903 Songhees people displaced from their Victoria-area reserve by special act of Parliament

1903 Incorporation of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway

1903 Boarding school established at Ahousaht (to 1907)

1903 Richard McBride is premier of BC (to 1915)

1903 Boarding school for boys established at Port Simpson (to 1920s)

1903 Alaskan boundary dispute and award

1903 Buntzen Lake (Coquitlam) power plant begins supplying power to Lower Mainland

1904 Vancouver Island Settlers Rights Act

1904 American companies buy up timber licences in southern interior and coast (to 1911)

1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. Indian people from BC participate

1905 Second grant of land from BC to Canada for the E & N Railway

1905 Province reserves all unalienated timber lands

1905 St. Georges Industrial School for Boys established in Lytton

1905 Brittania Mining & Smelting commences operations on Howe Sound

1905 Frank Oliver is responsible for the Department of the Interior (to 1911)

1905 Prince Commission studies BC fisheries (to 1907)

1905 Province of Alberta formed

1906 Barricade (fishing) agreement negotiated with Babine Nation

1906 Assembly of coastal and interior Indian people at Cowichan

1906 Delegation of BC chiefs meet with King Edward to discuss the Indian Land Question

1906 Dominion Forest Reserves Act defined eight forest reserves in BC

1906 The western boundary of the Railway Belt is defined

1906 Railway Belt Act

1907 Economic recession

1907 BC passes OIC regarding reversionary interest

1907 Nisga’a form Nisga’a Land Committee

1907 Automobiles begin to be used in BC

1907 First Vancouver, Victoria and Eastern Railway train reaches Keremeos

1907 GTPR begins construction along Skeena and Bulkley Rivers

1908 BC’s Executive Council decides it will not make any further reserve allotments

1908 BC’s Executive Council refers query about aboriginal title to SCC, but is not entertained

1908 Canada-US border begins to be monitored by federal officials

1908 Federal government starts to regulate the canneries industry in BC

1908 Consolidated Land Act. s. 80 grants province reversionary interest

1909 Petition by Cowichan Tribes to the King of England. Referred back to Canada

1906 Second delegation of BC chiefs to England

1909 Indian Rights Association formed in BC (to 1916)

1909 Interior Tribes of BC formed

1909 Boarding school established at Alberni (to 1920s)

1909 Timber & Forestry Commission appointed to study timber land tenure in BC

1909 Northwest Coast Agency subdivided into Nass, Bella Coola and Q. Charlotte Agencies

1909 Water Act creates Board of Investigation (to 1939)

1910 Some northern nations sign adhesion to Treaty 8

1910 Rev. O’Meara submits Nisga’a Statement of Facts and Claims to the federal DOJ

1910 BC refuses to submit question of aboriginal title in BC to British Privy Council

1910 Vancouver Island Settlers’ Rights Agreement Ratifcation Act

1910 Declaration of the Tahltan Tribe

1910 Amendment to the Water Act defines the powers of the Water Commissioner

1910 Conference of Friends of the Indians of BC is formed

1910 Burrard Power Case clarifies water rights in BC

1910 Indian Reserve Commission is dismantled

1910 Indian Superintendent’s office in Victoria is closed and position abolished

1910 W.E. Ditchburn appointed to head Southwestern Inspectorate

1910 Interior Chiefs sign declaration setting out their position on aboriginal title and rights

1910 While in BC, Laurier visits Kamloops. Learning that he is in favour of larger reserves and recognition of Aboriginal Title, the Chiefs of Shuswap, Okanagan & Thompson Tribes present a Memorial to Sir Wilfred Laurier, Premier of the Dominion of Canada from the Chiefs of the Shuswap, Okanagan and Thompson Tribes, condemning BC land policies and game laws and rejecting BC’s takeover of their lands. Believing that the Queen’s laws will guarantee their rights, they request treaties with Canada

1910 BC divided into three inspectorates: Northern, Southwestern and Southeastern

1910 Fraser River Agency is divided into New Westminster and Lytton Agencies

1910 Okanagan Agency is split off from Kamloops Okanagan Agency

1910 First stage of development of Stave Lake Falls begins (to 1916)

1910 Canada & US sign international pact ending pelagic sealing; Indians exempt from ban

1910 Burrard Power Co. vs. Regina clarifies Indian water rights

1910 Royal Commission on Timber & Forestry in BC (Fulton Commission)

1910 E & N Railway line extended to Alberni

1910 Lejac residential school established at Fraser Lake (to 1976)

1911 Barricade (fishing) agreements negotiated with Fort Fraser & Fort St. James bands

1911 BC offers to buy back Railway Belt and Peace River Block from the Dominion

1911 Dominion transfers juridsiction over water rights in the Railway Belt to BC

1911 Federal election (Conservative victory)

1911 The Interior Tribes, now consisting of the Secwepemc, Nlaka’pamux, Okanagan, St’at’imc, Tsilhqot’in, Dakelh Tahltan, and the coastal Sto:lo chiefs submits a Memorial to the Honourable Frank Oliver, Minister of the Interior, Ottawa. That same day, the St’at’imc release the Declaration of the Lillooet Tribe, asserting ownership of their territories and reminding Canada that though BC lays claim to their lands, they have defended their land “at the cost of their blood” and have never surrendered or deserted it.1911 Coastal and interior chiefs meet with BC Premier McBride to discuss aboriginal title

1911 Over sixty delegates of the Interior Tribes, the Indian Rights Association and the Nisga’a Land Committee meet with Premier McBride to protest BC land policies and demand to be heard by Canadian courts. McBride declines, asserting that they do not have a legal case and that Indigenous people, in general, are satisfied with BC policies. In response, the Interior Tribes issues a Memorial and Declaration, reiterating their July 1910 declaration

1911 Amendments to the Indian Act

1911 Kettle River Valley Railway Co. renamed Kettle Valley Railway Company

1911 An Act respecting the taking of Lands for Highway Purposes

1911 Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway extended to Port Alberni

1911 First cannery built in the Queen Charlotte Islands

1911 Provincial Forest Branch is established

1911 Provincial Department of Lands and Works re-organized (to 1913)

1912 BC premier asserts province’s reversionary interest; calls for readjustment of IRs

1912 Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway extended to Lake Cowichan

1912 Dr. J.A. J. McKenna memo to BC premier agreeing to set aside aboriginal title question

1912 Economic depression in BC

1912 Sechelt residential school established (to 1975)

1912 CPR acquires Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway

1912 Delegation of Interior Tribes travels to Ottawa to discuss land matters with the PM. The Interior Tribes meets with McKenna and, after receiving a copy of the McKenna-McBride agreement, submits a Statement of the Chiefs of the Interior Tribes of British Columbia to the Honourable Mr. Borden, Prime Minister of Canada and Members of the Dominion Government, clarifying that their main concern is not the size of reserves, but the “stealing of our lands by the BC government.” The chiefs assert ownership of their territories and demand a Privy Council hearing, rejecting the mandate of the Commission and its ability to reach fair and unbiased decisions.

1912 Delegates of the Interior Tribes, Indian Rights Association and the Nisga’a Land Committee agree to unite under the Indian Rights Association on all matters related to the McKenna-McBride agreement.

1912 Indian Rights Association petition to Prime Minister Borden

1912 Friends of the Indians of BC present a memorial to the Governor General

1912 Provincial Water Rights Branch is established

1912 Pacific Great Eastern Railway (PGER) is incorporated

1912 Bridge River Power Company formed

1912 Provincial Forest Act passed

1912 Province begins selling timber by auction (rights retained by the provincial crown)

1912 Indian fishing devices destroyed by federal officials

1912 BC Fish & Wildlife Branch requires the registration of traplines

1912 Jordan River project supplies power to Victoria area

1912 Province repurchases railway land grants

1913 Mckenna-McBride Royal Commission is established

1913 McKenna-McBride Royal Commission estimates BC Indian population to be 21,489

1913 Nisga’a Land Committee petition presented to the British Privy Council

1913 Nass Indians sign declaration

1913 Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology Act

1913 Canada Geographic Board’s Handbook of Indians of Canada lists BC reserve acreages

1913 Interior Tribes statement addressed to PM Robert Borden

1913 McKenna-McBride agreement meansNisga’a petition not referred to Judicial Committee

1913 H. Cathcart becomes Superintendent of Inspection Branch (to 1917)

1913 Railway Belt Water Act (Amendment to the Water Act)

1913 Schedule of Indian Reserves in the Dominion

1913 Railway Belt Water Act

1913 Alaska Highway completed

1913 BC makes third grant of land to Dominion for E & N Railway

1913 Preliminary survey work on BC-Alberta boundary

1913 Deputy Superintendent D.C. Scott distributes circular to Indian agents re: procedures

1913 Approximately one ninth of BC’s land mass surveyed to date

1913 Approximately 500,000 acres in BC alienated for mining purposes

1913 Approximately 8.5 million acres in BC alienated for timber purposes

1914 Federal PCOC asking Indian Tribes to accept the findings of the Royal Commisssion

1914 Federal PCOC recommends Exchequer Court of Canada rule on aboriginal title

1914 BC Chiefs reject extinquishment clauses recommended by Dominion

1914 War Measures Act gives federal cabinet emergency powers

1914 Interior Chiefs request their claims be put to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

1914 First World War begins (to 1918)

1914 BC Water Act

1914 Grand Trunk Pacific Railway completes construction in Northern BC

1914 Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway extended to Courtenay

1914 Communities situated along railway lines are linked by telegraph

1914 Railway construction causes slide at Hell’s Gate and contributes to Indian famine

1915 Interior Tribes assembly

1915 Nisga’a delegation to Ottawa

1915 Canadian National rail line reaches West Coast

1915 Indian Rights Association statement on lands made to Minister of the Interior

1915 Canadian Northern Railway reaches Vancouver

1916 Nisga’a delegation to Ottawa

1916 Migratory Birds Convention Act

1916 Indian Conference statement refusing to accept McKenna-McBride Commission findings

1916 Allied Indian Tribes of British Columbia formed to press Indian Land Question (to 1927). The Nisga’a and the Interior Tribes form the Allied Tribes during a meeting in Vancouver, in which the position of the Indian Rights Association is formally rejected and the organization dissolved. The executive of the Allied Tribes is elected to represent the Interior and Coast Salish, Kootenay, Tsilhqot’in, Dakelh, Kaska-Dene, Q’uwit’sun, Nuxalk, Nisga’a, Tsimshian, Haida and Gitksan peoples.

1916 McKenna-McBride Commission Final Report is published

1916 McKenna-McBride Commission resolution regarding water rights

1916 Duncan Campbell Scott is Superintendent of Indian Education

1916 Second stage of Stave Lake Falls development begins (to 1925)

1917 W.E. Ditchburn becomes Chief Inspector for BC

1917 Southwestern Inspectorate of BC abolished

1917 H. Cathcart is Superintendent of Lands (to 1929)

1917 Federal government requires fishing permits; imposes further restrictions for Indians

1917 Federal Soldier Settlement Act

1917 Provincial Soldiers Land Act and Soldiers Homestead Repeal Act

1918 Water Act amendments - Soldiers Land Act includes involvement of Water Rights Branch

1918 DIA and Department of Interior agree on policy to review and protect Indian water rights

1918 First World War ends

1918 Spanish Flu (influenza) epidemic kills many Indian people in BC

1918 Northern Inspectorate of BC abolished

1918 Report on BC forest resources Forests in British Columbia issued

1918 Federal PCOC #1509 issued regarding road allowances within the Railway Belt

1918 PGER reaches Quesnel. PGER taken over by BC Government (becomes BC Rail)

1919 Allied Tribes formally reject McKenna-McBride findings. After an assembly in Spences Bridge and large intertribal meetings throughout BC, the Allied Tribes drafts a Statement of the Allied Indian Tribes of BC for the Government of British Columbia, outlining the “present position of the Indian land controversy” in BC, emphasizing Indigenous territorial ownership and rejecting the McKenna-McBride recommendations. The Statement is distributed to Indigenous communities throughout BC before it is presented to Premier John Oliver in December.

1919 BC Indians table 20 Conditions proposed as a basis of settlement

1919 Provincial Indian Affairs Settlement Act (SBC 1919-c.32)

1919 CNR and CNPR incorporate as Candian National Railway Company

1919 British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council ruling Re: Southern Rhodesia

1920 Federal British Columbia Lands Settlement Act (SC 1920-c.51)

1920 Federal legislation permits enfranchisement of Indians without their consent. Repealed

1920 Ditchburn-Clark review of the McKenna-McBride Royal Commission’s work (to 1923)

1920 Duncan C. Scott makes it mandatory for Indian children (7-15 yrs) to attend school

1920 Alberni residential school established (to 1973)

1920s Seine licences not granted to Indians until now as a matter of departmental policy

1920s BC Indian population reaches lowest point

1920s Fire at Indian Affairs Williams Lake office. All records destroyed.

1921 British Judicial Committee of Privy Council ruling Amodu Tijani v. Southern Nigeria

1921 Pacific Great Eastern Railway (BC Rail) reaches Quesnel

1921 Indian Water Claims Act (BC)

1922 Assembly of the Allied Indian Tribes of BC held. The Allied Tribes meets in North Vancouver to continue lobbying British, Canadian and BC governments for a judicial hearing regarding Aboriginal Title

1922 Federal government removes some salmon fishing restrictions

1922 Stl’Atl’Imx (Lillooet) Tribe petition Dominion government to address aboriginal title

1922 GTPR and Canadian Northern Railway merge to form the Canadian National Railway

1922 Nass Agency amalgamated with Skeena Agency to become Skeena River Agency

1922 Vancouver Agency is split from New Westminster Agency

1922 Duff Commission studies fishing restrictions in BC

1923 Indian boarding schools become industrial and/or residential schools

1923 W.E. Ditchburn is Indian Commissioner for BC (to 1932)

1923 Provincial OIC 911 approves McKenna-McBride cut-offs of reserve land

1923 Indians permitted to participate in commercial fishery. Gas boats allowed on North Coast

1924 Federal PCOC 1265 approves McKenna-McBride reserves but not cut-offs in RB

1924 The elective system is introduced to replace the hereditary leadership system

1924 BC Electric Co. purchases stock in Bridge River Power Co.

1924 BC Premier John Oliver assures the SGIA that Indian foreshore rights will be protected

1924 Federal/provincial agreement on public harbours in BC

1924 W.E. Ditchburn becomes Indian Commissioner for BC (to 1929)

1924 Government prohibits unauthorized soliciting by Indians of outside funds

1924 International agreement between Canada & US restricts halibut fishing

1925 Historic Objects Preservation Act

1926 Allied Tribes of BC ask Parliament to examine question of aboriginal title in BC. The Allied Tribes petitions the Canadian Parliament for an inquiry, outlining the “Indian land controversy” since BC entered confederation. Due to government approval of the McKenna-McBride recommendations, the Allied Tribes declares that they are entitled to a hearing at the Privy Council and demands the funding and sanction to do so.

1926 BC Electric Power and Gas Co. Ltd. incorporate

1926 BC introduces trapline regulations. Trapline boundaries established

1926 Chief William Pierrish of Neskonlith tables statement with King of England

1927 Special joint committee holds hearings and rejects claims of the BC Allied Tribes. Canada appoints a Joint Special Committee of the Senate and House of Commons to inquire into Claims of the Allied Tribes as set out in their 1926 petition. The Committee considers the position of the Allied Tribes for two weeks, then declares that they had not proven any rights to the land based on Aboriginal or other title. The Committee recommends that the matter be closed, and blaming outside agitators for Indigenous resistance, recommends a ban on obtaining funds or legal counsel to advance Aboriginal Title cases. The Committee further recommends that Indians in BC receive an annual allotment of $100,000 to be spent on education, medical care and the promotion of agriculture, ranching and irrigation on reserves.

1927 Indian Act prohibits raising money or hiring lawyers to pursue land claims (to 1951). Canada amends the Indian Act to make it illegal to obtain funds or legal counsel to advance Aboriginal Title cases. This ends the Allied Tribes’ hope of having a case heard at the Privy Council in London and the Allied Tribes dissolves. Indigenous resistance goes underground.

1927 BC legislates all defunct (non-operational) railways out of existence

1928 Special Funding Vote, a $100,00 annual payment for BC Indians, commences

1928 BC Electric Railway Co. taken over by the Montreal-based Power Corporation

1928 Influenza epidemic in Mackenzie Valley. Many deaths

1929 Scott-Cathcart agreement reached on measures for transfering Indian reserves to Canada

1929 Stock market crash. Beginning of the Great Depression (to World War Two)

1929 Board of Investigation renamed Water Board

1929 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council rules BC has jurisdiction over fish processing

1929 C.C. Perry becomes Indian Commissioner for BC (to 1936)

1929 St. Michael’s residential school established in Alert Bay (to 1975)

1930 F.C. Green is Surveyor-General of BC (to 1946)

1930 Canada - BC Natural Resources Transfer Agreement

1930 Federal PCOC 208 transfers Railway Belt & Peace River Block from Canada back to BC

1930 Ruskin Dam operational

1931 Native Brotherhood of British Columbia formed. The Haida and Tsimshian form the Native Brotherhood of British Columbia (NBBC). NBBC organizes protests on fishing, lands, taxation and social issues. The founding declaration is similar to the Allied Tribes’ statement, but avoids mentioning Aboriginal Title. Its official mandate is to improve the socio-economic conditions of Indian people in BC. Unofficially, the NBBC seek recognition of Aboriginal Title.

1931 Native Brotherhood organizes protests about fishing, lands and social issues

1932 Position of Grazing Commissioner dissolved - duties passed to Chief Forester

1932 Fire at the Indian Affairs Lytton Agency office. All records are destroyed.

1935 Position of Indian Commissioner for BC abolished but re-established in 1936

1936 Major D.M. McKay becomes Indian Commissioner for BC (to 1948)

1936 Indian administration absorbed by the Department of Mines and Resources (to 1949)

1937 Canada and US ratify Fraser Salmon Convention

1938 Provincial OIC 1036 transfers Indian reserves outside the RB & PRB to the federal crown

1939 Cathcart-Taggart report on ordnance and admiralty lands in BC (government reserves)

1939 Second World War begins (to 1945)

1939 Fire destroys much of BC Attorney General ministry’s letterbooks for 1872-1917

1939 Indian Water Claims Act partly repealed. Water Act is revised

1941 Crerar-Gray (federal-provincial) agreement on measures for dealing with cut-off lands

1942 Census of various bands in Stuart Lake Agency

1942 Indian commercial fishermen obliged to pay federal income tax

1943 Andrew Paull becomes president of fledgling North American Indian Brotherhood. Squamish political leader, Andrew Paull, establishes the North American Indian Brotherhood (NAIB). Paull had figured prominently in the Allied Tribes and the NBBC. The NAIB aims to organize Indians across Canada to fight for civil rights without loss of Indian rights.

1943 British Columbia Indian Reserves Mineral Resources Act

1943 Schedule of Indian Reserves in the Dominion of Canada-Reserves in the Prov. of BC

1945 Inquiry into provincial forest resources commenced

1945 Provincial Department of Lands is divided into Land Service and Forest Service

1945 Provincial Government creates the BC Power Commission to replace smaller utilities

1945 Second World War ends

1945 United States Indian Claims Commission is created (to 1978)

1946 Peter Kelly & Anderw Paull press for revisions to the Indian Act (to 1951)

1948 BC Region created by DIA

1948 W.S. Arneil becomes Indian Commissioner for BC (to 1955)

1949 Provincial legislation establishes Indian people’s right to vote in provincial elections

1949 Trans Canada Highway Act

1949 West Coast Transmission Co. incorporated

1949 British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council replaced by Supreme Court of Canada

1949 Nisga’a Chief Frank Calder is elected to the BC Legislature

1950 Indian Affairs portfolio is part of the Department of Citizenship & Immigration (to 1965)

1950 Northern Affairs portfolio is part of the Department of Resources & Development

1950 Creation of an Indian Claims Commission discussed in House of Commons debates

1950 Carbon 14 dating technique developed

1950 Korean War (to 1953). BC Indian soliders participate.

1951 Indian Act is revised - prohibition regarding the pursuit of land claims is removed

1951 Hope-Princeton highway opened

1951 Lower Post residential school established (to 1975)

1951 Oil & gas boom begins in Peace River District

1952 Kemano 1 project completed. Kenny dam floods Cheslatta territory

1952 Nechako Reservoir Study is first archaeological impact assessment in BC

1952 Pacific Great Eastern Railway (BC Rail) extended to Prince George

1952 Borden system for designating archaeological sites is developed

1953 Prohibition against Indians pre-empting land repealed

1953 John Hart dam near Campbell River completed

1953 Trans Mountain Oil pipeline reaches Port Moody

1953 Northern Affairs portfolio part of Department of Northern Affairs & Natural Resources

1954 Stikine Agency becomes Yukon Agency

1954 Pine Tree radar defence line completed

1955 Nisga’a form a tribal council to carry on work of the Land Committee

1955 Letter from DIA to Indian Commissioner BC declares Sinixt extinct

1955 The Indians of BC: A Survey of Social and Economic Conditions published

1956 BC Rail line from Quesnel reaches Prince George

1957 Fort St. John Agency transferred from NWT and Alberta to BC

1957 Burns Lake Agency established

1957 Viet Nam War (to 1975). BC Indian soldiers participate

1957 BC Department of Fisheries replaced by Department of Recreation & Conservation

1957 DEW (Distant Early Warning) radar line operational

1958 Burrard Thermal Generating Station commences operations

1958 Pacific Great Eastern Railway extended to Dawson Creek

1959 Nelson Commission makes recommendations on Treaty 8 provisions; no action taken

1959 Joint Committee for the review of Indian Affairs policy considers Indian claims (to 1961)

1960 Secwepemc leader, George Manuel and Nisga’a leader Frank Calder present briefs to the Joint Committee for the Review of Indian Affairs Policy. Citing the 1763 Royal Proclamation, Manuel and Calder both demand recognition of and compensation for loss of Aboriginal Title. The Committee recommends the establishment of an Indian Claims Commission to settle outstanding land claims in Canada.

1960 Federal voting rights extended to include Indian people

1960 Bridge River flooded to create Carpenter Lake resevoir

1961 Joint Committee recommends creation of an Indian Claims Commission in Canada

1961 Legislation creating an Indian Claims Commission is drafted but never enacted

1961 Transfer of 24,000 acres from province to Canada pursuant to Treaty 8 obligations

1961 Columbia River Treaty signed between Canada and US

1961 Provincial Government purchases BC Electric Company

1962 BC Electric Co. amalgamates with BC Power Commission to create BC Hydro

1962 Bill C-19, An Act respecting the Canada Court of Indians receives first reading

1962 North American Indian Brotherhood calls for legislated Indian Claims Commission

1962 Flooding at a government warehouse damages DIA records from the 40’s & 50’s

1963 Bill C-130, An Act to provide for the disposition of Indian Claims receives first reading

1964 Department of Indian Affairs restructured

1965 R. vs. White vs. Bob clarifies treaty and hunting rights

1965 Mid-Canada radar defence line discontinued

1965 Bill C-130 is amended and reintroduced as Bill C-123, but is not enacted

1966 Confederation of Native Indians of BC formed

1966 Government Organization Act

1966 Indian and Northern Affairs portfolios are merged under one minister

1966 BC-Yukon Region amalgamation with DIA headquarters in Vancouver

1966 Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) is formed

1960s High-voltage power transmission lines begin to be erected in BC

1967 Duncan dam on Columbia River completed

1967 Mica Dam-Kinbasket Lake Reservoir construction begins

1967 Museums Act

1967 Worrall Report on mineral resources on Indian reserves in BC published

1968 Nisga’a take their land claim to court

1968 Len Marchand becomes second Indian MP after Louis Riel

1968 W.A.C. Bennett hydroelectric dam completed; creates Williston Lake Reservoir

1968 Hugh Keenleyside Dam operational. Arrow Lake Reservoir created

1968 Indian Homemakers Association formed

1968 DIA establishes and admininisters Indian Mining Regulations

1969 Indian Claims Commission is established under Inquiries Act (Barber Commission)

1969 BC waives reversionary interest in Indian Reserves

1969 NDP position paper acknowledges aboriginal title never extinguished in BC

1969 Nisga’a initiate litigation that results in 1973 Calder decision

1969 Federal government acknowledges McKenna-McBride cut-offs were unlawful

1969 Trudeau government’s White Paper asserts that aboriginal title does not exist. Prime Minister Trudeau and his Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chretien, introduce a white paper on Indian policy. The policy is one of aggressive assimilation and is soon dubbed “The White Paper” by Indigenous leaders.

1969 The Union of BC Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) forms as 144 chiefs and delegates from all over BC meet to discuss the White Paper and its effects on Indian people in BC.

1969 Federal government takes direct control over Indian residential schools

1970s Metric system of land measurement comes into use in Canada

1970 BC-Yukon Region separates

1970 Supreme Court of Canada upholds Indians’ right to drink in public

1970 At the second General Assembly of the UBCIC, UBCIC issues A Declaration of Indian Rights: the BC Position Paper

1970 BC Land Act eliminates the pre-emption system in BC

1970 Feet become the standard unit of land measurement

1970 INAC Membership starts transferring local administration of membership to bands

1971 BC Rail line reaches Fort Nelson

1971 UBCIC submission to federal and provincial governments on Native Title to BC

1971 The Canadian Government formally withdraws the White Paper and soon after, the UBCIC adopts its Constitution and By-laws and is incorporated under the BC Societies Act.

1971 Indian Fisheries Development Board

1971 George Manuel meets with New Zealand and Australian indigenous leaders

1972 George Manual meets with international indigenous groups

1972 Schedule of Indian Reserves and Settlements issued by INAC

1972 National Indian Brotherhood issues Indian Control of Indian Education paper which officially recognizes that languages and cultures are an integral part of First Nation education. In response to the recommendations from Chiefs and Elders the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs (INAC) implements the Cultural Education Centres Program.

1972 UBCIC submits BC claim based on native title to the federal government. UBCIC presents a Claim Based on Native Title to the Lands now Forming British Columbia to Prime Minister Trudeau, demanding recognition of Aboriginal Title and compensation for its loss. UBCIC proposes that Canada establish a claims commission to adjust reserve size and determine the amount of compensation to be paid to Indigenous people for the loss of their territories. Trudeau ignores the proposal

1972 The BC government agrees to consider the return of reserve lands that had been cut-off by the McKenna-McBride Commission, but asserts that settling Aboriginal Title claims is a federal matter. Canada and BC begin negotiations with the Indian Bands affected in 1981.

1973 Federal Indian Affairs Minister Jean Chretien introduces federal land claims policy

1973 Aboriginal rights discussed for first time in the federal House of Commons

1973 Calder vs. A-G recognizes land rights based on aboriginal title (SCC). Calder v. Attorney General of BC. The Supreme Court of Canada recognizes that the Nisga'a held title to their land before BC was established, however the court splits evenly on whether Nisga’a title had been extinguished since the establishment of BC. In response, Trudeau changes federal policy to allow negotiation of "Comprehensive Claims" based on Aboriginal Title and "Specific Claims" based on reserve lands.

1973 Mica Dam (Kinbasket Lake Reservoir) operational

1974 INAC establishes Office of Native Claims to receive claims submissions

1974 Nisga’a comprehensive claim accepted for negotiation by the federal government

1974 Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry established

1974 BC Indian Cut-off Lands Settlement Act (federal)

1975 World Council of Indigenous Peoples founded by George Manuel at Port Alberni

1976 Mica Dam completed

1976 Province agrees to participate in Nisga’a negotiations; doesn’t acknowledge title issue

1976 Federal government adopts the comprehensive land claims policy

1977 Gitksan-Carrier comprehensive claim accepted for negotiation by Canada

1977 Kitwancool comprehensive claim accepted for negotiation by the federal government

1977 Commissioner on Indian Claims (Lloyd Barber) issues recommendations in report

1977 Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry report issued ("Berger Report")

1977 George Manuel is nominated for Nobel Peace Prize (and again in 1978 and 1979)

1977 UBCIC proposes Aboriginal Rights Commission consider aboriginal title & rights issues

1977 Heritage Conservation Act (BC)

1977 Ft. Nelson Indian Reserve Minerals Sharing Agreement

1977 Federal government introduces Salmonid Enhancement Program

1977 Kruger & Manuel v. The Queen

1978 Indian Nations Aboriginal Rights Position Paper formulated by UBCIC

1978 Indian Cut-off Bands Committee rejects federal-provincial cut-off lands offer

1978 Haisla Nation comprehensive claim accepted for negotiation by federal government

1979 Gerald LaForest reviews federal specific claims policy, recommends independent tribunal

1979 BC Chiefs & Elders make constitutional visit to England

1979 Aboriginal Council of BC founded

1979 Indian Cut-off Bands Committee rejects federal-provincial cut-off lands offer

1979 Baker Lake test for aboriginal title created by Baker Lake Federal Court case

1979 The UBCIC created and adopted a flag as a national symbol to represent Indian Peoples determination and power to safeguard their territories.

1979 UBCIC drafts the Aboriginal Rights Position Paper, outlining a basis for all discussions relating to land claims and Aboriginal Rights. The position paper advocates exclusive control over larger reserves and includes an Indian Government Manifesto that draws on the principles of nationhood, self-determination and equality of peoples.

1980 Canada’s First Nations petition Queen to recognize aboriginal rights in the Constitution

1980 UBCIC supports the Indian Child Caravan. The Spallumcheen band passes a bylaw regarding taking ownership of the care of their children. The UBCIC provides office space, organizes the media and provides the impetus for the generation of province-wide interest in the issue. The march and demonstration led by Chief Wayne Christian, goes from Vancouver, BC and eventually led to BC’s Minister of Social Services. The subsequent meeting of the Minister of Social Service, Grace McCarthy with the band led to an agreement which gave the Spallumcheen control over their own child welfare program

1980 Nisga’a submission to Special Joint Committee of the Senate & House of Commons

1980 Association of the United Tahltans comprehensive claim accepted for negotiation

1980 Nuu-Chah-Nulth Nation comprehensive claim submitted to federal government

1980 Haida Nation comprehensive claim submitted to federal government

1981 Heiltsuk Nation comprehensive claim submitted to federal government

1981 Nuxalk Nation comprehensive claim submitted to federal government

1981 Kootenay Nation comprehensive claim submitted to federal government

1981 Nazko-Kluskus comprehensive claim submitted to federal government

1981 UBCIC mobilizes the Constitution Express. Trainloads of Indigenous people travel from BC to Ottawa to lobby Trudeau and the Premiers to guarantee Indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination in the Canadian Constitution. In the end, Canada passes the Canada Constitution Act, 1982 recognizing “existing aboriginal and treaty rights” (Section 35). Three years later, after a series of unsuccessful First Ministers’ Conferences, the task of defining Aboriginal Rights is left to the Canadian courts.

1981 Some McKenna-McBride cut-off lands claims are settled (into the mid-1980’s)

1981 Federal comprehensive claims policy is set out in In All Fairness

1981 Federal claims policy altered to entertain local government participation at negotiations

1981 Pearse Commission into Pacific fisheries

1982 Economic recession

1982 Kaska-Dene comprehensive claim submitted to federal government

1982 Neskonlith submission to House of Commons Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs

1982 Canada Constitution Act recognizes existing aboriginal and treaty rights (s. 35)

1982 Federal specific claims policy is set out in Outstanding Business: A Native Claims Policy

1983 Christie residential school in Tofino, the last residential school, closes

1983-4 Meares Island logging controversy

1984 Indian Cut-Off Lands Disputes Act (BC)

1984 Len Marchand appointed to the Senate

1984 Declaration of the Chilcotin Nation

1984 Declaration of the Kwakiutl Nation; comprehensive claim submitted to Canada

1984 Guerin v. the Queen affirms fiduciary responsibilities of the Federal government (SCC)

1985 Task Force reviewing comprehensive claims policy issues report (Coolican Report)

1985 The UBCIC develops and adopts the Aboriginal Title and Rights Position Paper, containing four principles that remain the guiding principles of the UBCIC: 1) Recognition that we are the original people of the land, 2) Recognition that we have the right to choose and will determine the type of authority we wish to exercise through our Indian governments, 3) Recognition that we have the right to exercise and will exercise the sufficient jurisdiction without our traditional territories to maintain our sacred connection to Mother Earth through management and conservation of the resource and the use of the resources necessary for the economic survival and well-being of our citizens and 4) Recognition that it is only through a process of informed consent that our territory, its resources or our governing authority over our lands and our people may be shared

1985 Bill C-31 An Act to Amend the Indian Act

1985 Bill C-31 passes, ending discrimination against Indian women who married non-Indians

1985 Bill C-31 results in addition of many new members to BC Indian bands

1986 Canada revises its comprehensive claims policy

1986 An Act relating to the establishment of self-government for the Sechelt Indian Band

1986 United Church of Canada first to apologize for treatment at residential schools

1988 Canadian Bar Association affirms need for claims to be submitted to an independent body

1988 Assembly of First Nations publishes Aboriginal Language Policy Study (Phases I   & II).

1988 AFN hosts National conference on languages to formulate First Nation Languages Policy Framework.

1988 Bill C-115 (Kamloops amendments) establishes power of bands to tax reserve lands

1989 Cemetery and Funeral Services Act (BC)

1989 RBCM develops policy for repatriation of human remains and cultural materials

1989 Claxton vs. Saanichton Marina (BC Court of Appeal) confirms Douglas Treaty rights

1990 R. vs. Sparrow clarifies constitutionally protected aboriginal fishing rights (SCC)

1990 Assembly of First Nations (AFN) issues critique of federal land claims policies

1990 The Oka standoff begins. Mohawk warriors barricade a road to “The Pines” near Oka, Quebec to stop golf course expansion into their traditional burial ground. In July, 100 police attempt to take down the barricade. One officer is killed and the Mohawks blockade all roads and bridges leading into their territory. Local non-Indigenous residents riot at the barricades and the Canadian Army is called in. Within months, the barricades are dismantled and 150 Mohawk people are arrested. The golf course proposal is abandoned. Indigenous communities across BC erect blockades in support of the Mohawk people. People block railways and roads, slow traffic and hand out information pamphlets about Indigenous land rights and the struggle in BC.

1990 Federal government agrees to resolve outstanding TLE issues in prairies

1990 Province abandons 119-year old policy of refusing to acknowledge aboriginal title

1990 Indian Self-government Enabling Act (BC)

1990 BC joins the Nisga’a and Canada in the negotiation of the Nisga’a Comprehensive Claim. This is the first time BC agrees to negotiate a Comprehensive Claim. BC still refuses to acknowledge Aboriginal Title.

1990 UBCIC submits a draft Comprehensive Framework Treaty to Canada and BC, setting out a process for treaty negotiation in BC. The first principle is that no extinguishment of Aboriginal Title will occur with as a result of the signing of a treaty.

1990 The First Nations Congress, a splinter group from UBCIC that began to form in 1975, works with Canada and BC to develop a treaty negotiation process. UBCIC upholds its Comprehensive Framework Treaty proposal and refuses to participate. Tripartite BC Claims Task Force is established to consider comprehensive claims issues

1991 Canada establishes a Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples to examine the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples. The Commission visits 96 communities, holds 178 days of hearings, and completes over 350 research projects over four years.

1991 Federal government agrees to consider pre-Confederation specific claims

1991 Federal government agrees to fast-track specific claims valued at less than $500,000

1991 Federal government lifts cap on the number of comprehensive claims under negotiation

1991 Report of the BC Claims Task Force recommends new treaty process for BC

1991 BC government formally acknowledges the Indian Land Question

1991 BC Court of Appeal rules that aboriginal rights were extinguished before 1871

1991 Indian Specific Claims Commission created to mediate rejected specific claims

1991 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples established

1991 UBCIC establishes the Institute of Indigenous Government (IIG). IIG become a degree-granting institution in 1995. The Nicola Valley Institute of Technology (NVIT) takes over IIG in 2007.

1992 Cariboo-Chilcotin Justice Inquiry established

1992 Mabo vs. Queensland

1992 AFN & Canadian Museums Association recommend more FN participation in museums

1992 INAC considers claims of a third kind, but no written policy is ever articulated

1992 Joint First Nations/Canada Working Group discusses reforms to specific claims process

1992 Schedule of Indian Bands, Reserves and Settlements published by DIAND

1992 BC Hydro creates Aboriginal Relations Department

1992 The First Nations Congress, Canada and BC establish the First Nations Summit and the BC Treaty Commission to implement the BC Treaty Process. The Treaty Process strives for final agreements in which Indigenous Peoples surrender 95 percent of their territories to Canada in exchange for compensation and specific treaty rights. Within ten years, 120 bands enter negotiations, borrowing $250 million to be paid back out of their compensation packages. As of May 2005, no final agreements have been signed.

1993 Joint First Nations/Canada Working Group dismantled when impasse reached

1993 BC Court of Appeal rules Gitsan & Wet’suwet’en have unextinguished aboriginal title

1993 Cariboo-Chilcotin Justice Inquiry issues report

1993 Treaty Commission Act

1993 The BC Government and the UBCIC enter into a Memorandum of Understanding: Respecting the Establishment of a government-to-government Relationship between the Indian Nations Comprising the UBCIC and the Government of BC. This MOU formally established the Joint Policy Council which worked for a number of years to in negotiations around lands, resources, health and welfare and education.

1993 Liberal Red Book promises claims will be considered by an independent commission

1994 Assembly of First Nations issues report on the reform of federal land claims policies

1994 Heritage Conservation Statutes Amendment Act

1994 Native Residential School Task Force created

1995 Independent fact finder Alvin Hamilton issues report on extinguishment and certainty

1995 Blueberry vs. Her Majesty the Queen finds the crown breached its fiduciary duty

1995 Province of BC introduces its traditional use studies policy

1995 Federal government acknowledges First Nations inherent right to self-government

1995 The Gustafson Lake stand-off begins when an American rancher attempts to evict Indigenous people gathered in ceremony on Secwepemc lands. Four hundred RCMP officers use armored vehicles, ammunition and land mines to evict 21 Indigenous people.

1996 The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples releases its Final Report recommending a redistribution of political authority and economic resources to reform the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples. Condemning Canada’s Comprehensive Claim policy, the Commission recommends a policy that recognizes Aboriginal rights and emphasizes shared ownership and jurisdiction over land. Canada shelves the $58 million report for two years.

1996 R. vs. Van der Peet clarifies aboriginal rights

1996 R. vs. Gladstone clarifies fishing rights

1996 R. vs. Nikal, R. vs. Lewis and R. vs. NTC Smokehouse clarifies aboriginal rights

1996 The Nisga’a Tribal Council, BC, and Canada sign an agreement-in-principle that forms the basis of the first Comprehensive Claim agreement signed in BC.

1996 Joint First Nations/Canada Task Force (JTF) discuss reforming specific claims policy

1997 Delgamuuk’w vs. British Columbia upholds aboriginal title (SCC) On appeal from previous BC Court decisions, the Gitxsan and Wet’suwet’en hereditary chiefs amend an original assertion of ownership and control over their territories, replacing it with claims of Aboriginal Title and self-government. BC argues that Aboriginal Title does not exist. Alternatively, BC argues, Aboriginal Title is not a right of ownership, but a right to engage in traditional subsistence practices such as hunting and fishing. The Supreme Court of Canada rejects the trial judge’s ruling that Aboriginal rights had been extinguished before 1871. The Court does not decide whether the Gitxsan and Wet’suwet’en still hold title to their land and instead clarifies that Aboriginal Title is not a right of absolute ownership, but a proprietary right to “exclusive use and occupation of land” that “is a burden on the Crown’s underlying title.” Once Aboriginal Title is proven, federal and provincial governments may infringe upon it for valid reasons, including resource extraction, economic and infrastructure development, settlement of foreign populations and environmental protection. Aboriginal people must be consulted and compensated for any infringement or extinguishment of Aboriginal Title.

1997 Federal Court of Appeal rules in band’s favour in Semiahmoo Indian Band vs. Canada

1998 JTF proposes independent commision and tribunal to resolve specific claims

1998 The UBCIC Research Department publishes Stolen Lands, Broken Promises: Researching the Indian Land Question in British Columbia. It is intended as a practical, hands-on resource for Indigenous community members wanting to conduct research on a variety of issues affecting traditional territory and reserve lands in British Columbia. The second revised edition is published in 2005.

1998 Blueberry and Doig River bands reach $147 million settlement for reserve mineral rights

1998 Minister of Indian Affairs makes statement of reconciliation re: residential school abuse

1998 $350 million Healing Fund established to address legacy of residential schools

1998 Nisga’a sign agreement with federal and provincial governments

1998 The UBCIC develops and endorses its Aboriginal Title Implementation Paper which suggests some of the ways which Indigenous Nations can begin a process of re-discovering and re-invigorating their own Laws and fully re-asserting Aboriginal Title and Right of Self-Determination

1998 United Church apologizes for its involvement with residential schools

1998 Canada selects Vancouver-Whistler (Salish-St’at’imc territories) as Canada’s nominee to host the 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Developers prepare a number of ski resort proposals for these territories.

1999 Sechelt Agreement in Principle Signed

1999 Nisga'a Treaty ratified by BC Legislature

1999 Westbank First Nations initiates direct action by harvesting trees

1999 Bill C-9, Nisga's Final Agreement brought into House of Commons

1999 Nisga'a Treaty passed second reading of House of Commons

1999 Peace Treaty Signed by Haisla, Heiltsuk, Kitasoo, Xais Xais

1999 New Territory Officially established: Nunavut

1999 Supreme Court decides that off-reserve members should have voting rights in on-reserve elections-Corbiere Decision 


2000 The Nisga’a Final Agreement becomes Canadian law. The Nisga’a surrender 92 percent of their territory in exchange for expanded reserve lands and $190 million cash. The Nisga’a Lisims government is subject to provincial and federal laws. Nisga’a living in the settlement lands will be subject to BC, Canada, and Lisims taxation.

2000 Chief Joe Mathias passed away, mourned  by many

2000 Nunavut Celebrates One Year Birthday

2000 Historical Joint Statement regarding Aboriginal Title made by First Nations Summit, Assembly of First Nations, and Union of BC Indian Chiefs

2000 St’at’imc people establish a protest camp at Sutikalh to stop a proposed ski resort development in the Cayoosh Mountains.

2000 Neskonlith people establish Swelkwekwelt Protection Centre at the Sun Peaks Ski Resort in Secwepemc territory to stop resort expansion. Secwepemc youth and Elders endure 54 arrests over four years. Resort expansion continues.

2001 Nuu-chah-nulth Agreement-In-Principle

2001 Liberal Leader, Gordon Campbell proposes Aboriginal BC Treaty referendum on Aboriginal treaty principles

2002 BC holds a referendum on the principles of BC Treaty negotiations. The referendum is widely denounced as biased, divisive and unjust. Indigenous leaders across the province organize a boycott. In the end, 33 percent of BC votes, a majority of which support the BC government’s position.

2002 In September, UBCIC, the First Nations Summit, the Métis Provincial Council of British Columbia, and the United Native Nations sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the Province of British Columbia to establish a joint dialogue and decision making process regarding general and systemic issues relating to the safety and well-being of Aboriginal children and families.

2003 Vancouver-Whistler is selected to host the 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Plans for the development of lands surrounding Vancouver-Whistler intensify.

2003 Lheidli T’enneh, BC and Canada sign the first agreement-in-principle under the BC Treaty Process. The Lheidli T’enneh agree in principle to surrender their territory in exchange for expanded reserve lands and $12.8 million. The Lheidli T’enneh will be subject to federal and provincial laws and taxation.

2004 The Songhees host a Spring Caravan to Victoria: “Moving Forward in Unity.” Over 2,500 Indigenous People converge on the BC legislature to protest BC land policies. The charge is led by the Title and Rights Alliance, representing bands inside and outside the BC Treaty Process. BC responds by denouncing those gathered as misinformed malcontents. UBCIC is a key organizing partner in this protest

2005 Prime Minister Paul Martin promises a transformation of Indian policy in Canada before reducing the Department of Indian Affairs’ budget by $260 million.

2005 BC continues to aggressively promote oil and gas drilling, ski resort development, logging, mining and other forms of resource extraction in Indigenous territories.

2005 In March, the UBCIC, FNS and BCAFN sign the Leadership Accord which commits the three organizations to work together for the benefit of all First Nations in British Columbia. The three organizations become the First Nations Leadership Council (FNLC)

2005 In April, the FNLC agree to the New Relationship with the BC Government. All parties commit to recognizing Aboriginal title and rights, to respecting each other’s laws and responsibilities, and to reconciling both Aboriginal and Crown titles and jurisdictions.

2005 The Haida Nation and their non-Haida neighbours block roads, seize timber and shut down forestry operations on Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) to protest BC forestry policies in their territory. The Island Spirit Uprising, as it was called, pushed the provincial government to begin high level negotiations with the Haida leadership. The official agreement says Haida leaders, islanders will see a significant drop in the annual allowable cut and the way resources are managed. The bear hunt will be halted and there will be a move toward eco-forestry.

2005 In October, the FNLC and the RCMP sign a Public Safety Cooperation Protocol, demonstrating the intent of First Nations and law enforcement to develop their relationship through mutual respect and trust and outline strategies to address community safety issues. The protocol is intended to build trust and reciprocal relations between the Parties in a proactive effort to prevent situations involving conflict situations and community crisis, alternatively, resolving disputes at the earliest possible opportunity.

2005 In November, the FNLC signs the Transformative Change Accord with the federal and provincial government. The First Ministers and Aboriginal Leaders commit to strengthening relationships on a government-to-government basis, and on focusing efforts to close the gap in the areas of education, health, housing and economic opportunities. The Parties agree that by December 2006, a detailed tripartite implementation strategy will be developed laying out specific actions and building upon a shared commitment to undertake as many initiatives as possible in year one of the 10 year plan (2006 - 2016).

2006 In June, the UBCIC sends an open letter to Prime Minister Stephen Harper urging “that your government actively encourage the adoption without amendment or qualification of the Chair’s proposed text of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.” The UNDRIP was adopted on September 13, 2007. Canada was one of four nations to vote against its adoption.

2006 In July, Premier Gordon Campbell, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Jim Prentice, Chief Negotiator Nathan Matthew and First Nations Education Steering Committee President Deborah Jeffry signed a historic agreement to recognize First Nations’ jurisdiction over First Nations’ education in British Columbia. The Framework Agreement allows First Nations who choose to negotiate a bilateral Canada-First Nation Education Jurisdiction Agreement to remove themselves from sections 114-122 of the Indian Act. The Framework Agreement has a term of seven years, which can be renewed upon agreement of all parties.

2006 In November, the FNLC, Government of Canada and Province of British Columbia sign a First Nations Health Plan Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), and the Leadership Council and BC release a BC First Nations Health Plan. These agreements are based on the Transformative Change Accord and the BC First Nations Health Blueprint and are designed to close the gaps in health outcomes that exist between First Nations and other British Columbians.

2007 In November, the FNLC hosted a three day strategic planning session in North Vancouver, which was attended by over 120 First Nations leaders from across British Columbia. This session was an opportunity to examine and discuss the important Tsilhqot’in Nation v. BC decision and to develop a unified strategy for the recognition of Aboriginal Title. First Nations leaders issued and signed a declaration entitled “All Our Relations” A Declaration of the Sovereign Indigenous Nations of British Columbia, affirming Aboriginal Title to their respective traditional territories across British Columbia.

2008 In January, the FNLC convened the first First Nations Chiefs’ Indigenous Child at the Centre Forum. At the forum, First Nations leaders signed an MOU with the Representative for Children and Youth, secured a commitment from Premier Campbell for the support of Jordan’s Principle and issued a declaration of commitment entitled Walking Together to Keep Indigenous Children at the Centre, committing to the exercise of our inherent rights and responsibility for the survival, dignity and well-being of our children. The Chiefs develop an Indigenous Child at the Centre Action Plan. It is intended that this collectively developed Action Plan will assist First Nations to address issues relating to Indigenous children and families in BC.

2008 In April, the Executive of the Union of BC Indian Chiefs fast for 24 hours as a demonstration of support for the jailed Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug Band Council members in Ontario. The Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation (KI) is involved in a dispute with the Government of Ontario and Platinex Mining Inc. KI is a fly-in community located in north-western Ontario. The Band Council members are jailed for protecting not only their territory but their fundamental human rights. The court found them in contempt of a court order allowing Platinex Mining to conduct exploration in their territory. The Chief and Council made the decision not to sign the court-ordered agreement and denied Platinex free-entry to KI lands.

2008 In May, the FNLC, Province of BC and the Government of Canada signed a First Nations Housing Memorandum of Understanding to improve coordination and collaboration, and commit the parties to develop complementary on- and off-reserve housing and infrastructure action plans. The off-reserve Aboriginal housing plan will be coordinated with an on-reserve housing and infrastructure action plan that will be collaboratively developed between First Nations and the federal government.

2008 The second Indigenous Child at the Centre Forum is held in July at which the Interim First Nations Child and Family Wellness Council (IFNCFWC) is established. During this Forum, delegates develop and endorse the One Heart, One Mind Statement of Solidarity and Cooperation which affirms the commitment to work together in a Nation-to-Nation and community-driven process to secure the individual and collective survival, dignity and well-being of Indigenous children.

2009 In March, the FNLC and the Province of BC sign a Recognition and Reconciliation Protocol on First Nations Children, Youth and Families. The Protocol commits the Parties to establish a common vision for child, youth and family wellness in BC, establishes the principles upon which the Parties will continue to work together, and includes a framework to support First Nations communities to exercise jurisdiction and responsibility for their children, youth and families.

2009 In May, in response to a growing number of questions, concerns and issues being raised by First Nations, Business, and Industry Leaders the FNLC and BC Government jointly decide to postpone introduction of the proposed Aboriginal Title Recognition and Reconciliation Act until after the May 12th Provincial Election. UBCIC sends an open letter to Premier Campbell and Ministers withdrawing from the legislative initiative process in July.

2010 In April, UBCIC submits a response to the Ministry of Environment, Water Stewardship Division’s BC Water Act Modernization Initiative. UBCIC expresses deep concerns that the submission process is highly problematic; it was designed without Indigenous involvement and treats Indigenous people as “stakeholders” in the water policy process. There is no recognition of Indigenous jurisdiction or constitutionally-enshrined and judicially-recognized Aboriginal Title and Rights.

2010 In June, UBCIC, along with 38 Aboriginal and civil society organizations across Canada, sends an open letter to Prime Minister Stephen Harper urging him to endorse the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples without qualifications and in a manner consistent with international human rights law. Of the four countries that opposed the UNDRIP, Australia and New Zealand have changed their positions and the US is taking a public review of its position. Canada’s position remains unchanged.

UBCIC is a NGO in Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.








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